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Adiabatic Quantum Computation And Quantum Annealing

Adiabatic Quantum Computation and Quantum Annealing PDF
Author: Catherine C. McGeoch
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627053360
Size: 76.32 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 93
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Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the ``native instruction set'' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a novel computing platform designed to solve NP-hard optimization problems. Starting with a 16-qubit prototype announced in 2007, the company has launched and sold increasingly larger models: the 128-qubit D-Wave One system was announced in 2010 and the 512-qubit D-Wave Two system arrived on the scene in 2013. A 1,000-qubit model is expected to be available in 2014. This monograph presents an introductory overview of this unusual and rapidly developing approach to computation. We start with a survey of basic principles of quantum computation and what is known about the AQC model and the QA algorithm paradigm. Next we review the D-Wave technology stack and discuss some challenges to building and using quantum computing systems at a commercial scale. The last chapter reviews some experimental efforts to understand the properties and capabilities of these unusual platforms. The discussion throughout is aimed at an audience of computer scientists with little background in quantum computation or in physics.

Adiabatic Quantum Computation And Quantum

Adiabatic Quantum Computation and Quantum PDF
Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 59.47 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Electronic book
Languages : en
Pages :
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Annotation Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the native instruction set'' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a novel computing platform designed to solve NP-hard optimization problems. Starting with a 16-qubit prototype announced in 2007, the company has launched and sold increasingly larger models: the 128-qubit D-Wave One system was announced in 2010 and the 512-qubit D-Wave Two system arrived on the scene in 2013. A 1,000-qubit model is expected to be available in 2014. This monograph presents an introductory overview of this unusual and rapidly developing approach to computation. We start with a survey of basic principles of quantum computation and what is known about the AQC model and the QA algorithm paradigm. Next we review the D-Wave technology stack and discuss some challenges to building and using quantum computing systems at a commercial scale. The last chapter reviews some experimental efforts to understand the properties and capabilities of these unusual platforms. The discussion throughout is aimed at an audience of computer scientists with little background in quantum computation or in physics.

Fundamentals Of Quantum Computing

Fundamentals of Quantum Computing PDF
Author: Venkateswaran Kasirajan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783030636883
Size: 10.14 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 478
View: 545

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This introductory book on quantum computing includes an emphasis on the development of algorithms. Appropriate for both university students as well as software developers interested in programming a quantum computer, this practical approach to modern quantum computing takes the reader through the required background and up to the latest developments. Beginning with introductory chapters on the required math and quantum mechanics, Fundamentals of Quantum Computing proceeds to describe four leading qubit modalities and explains the core principles of quantum computing in detail. Providing a step-by-step derivation of math and source code, some of the well-known quantum algorithms are explained in simple ways so the reader can try them either on IBM Q or Microsoft QDK. The book also includes a chapter on adiabatic quantum computing and modern concepts such as topological quantum computing and surface codes. Features: o Foundational chapters that build the necessary background on math and quantum mechanics. o Examples and illustrations throughout provide a practical approach to quantum programming with end-of-chapter exercises. o Detailed treatment on four leading qubit modalities -- trapped-ion, superconducting transmons, topological qubits, and quantum dots -- teaches how qubits work so that readers can understand how quantum computers work under the hood and devise efficient algorithms and error correction codes. Also introduces protected qubits - 0-π qubits, fluxon parity protected qubits, and charge-parity protected qubits. o Principles of quantum computing, such as quantum superposition principle, quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation, no-cloning theorem, quantum parallelism, and quantum interference are explained in detail. A dedicated chapter on quantum algorithm explores both oracle-based, and Quantum Fourier Transform-based algorithms in detail with step-by-step math and working code that runs on IBM QisKit and Microsoft QDK. Topics on EPR Paradox, Quantum Key Distribution protocols, Density Matrix formalism, and Stabilizer formalism are intriguing. While focusing on the universal gate model of quantum computing, this book also introduces adiabatic quantum computing and quantum annealing. This book includes a section on fault-tolerant quantum computing to make the discussions complete. The topics on Quantum Error Correction, Surface codes such as Toric code and Planar code, and protected qubits help explain how fault tolerance can be built at the system level.

Approximability Of Optimization Problems Through Adiabatic Quantum Computation

Approximability of Optimization Problems through Adiabatic Quantum Computation PDF
Author: William Cruz-Santos
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627055576
Size: 23.78 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 113
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The adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is based on the adiabatic theorem to approximate solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The design of an AQC algorithm involves the construction of a Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of the quantum system. This Hamiltonian is expressed as a linear interpolation of an initial Hamiltonian whose ground state is easy to compute, and a final Hamiltonian whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a given combinatorial optimization problem. The adiabatic theorem asserts that if the time evolution of a quantum system described by a Hamiltonian is large enough, then the system remains close to its ground state. An AQC algorithm uses the adiabatic theorem to approximate the ground state of the final Hamiltonian that corresponds to the solution of the given optimization problem. In this book, we investigate the computational simulation of AQC algorithms applied to the MAX-SAT problem. A symbolic analysis of the AQC solution is given in order to understand the involved computational complexity of AQC algorithms. This approach can be extended to other combinatorial optimization problems and can be used for the classical simulation of an AQC algorithm where a Hamiltonian problem is constructed. This construction requires the computation of a sparse matrix of dimension 2n × 2n, by means of tensor products, where n is the dimension of the quantum system. Also, a general scheme to design AQC algorithms is proposed, based on a natural correspondence between optimization Boolean variables and quantum bits. Combinatorial graph problems are in correspondence with pseudo-Boolean maps that are reduced in polynomial time to quadratic maps. Finally, the relation among NP-hard problems is investigated, as well as its logical representability, and is applied to the design of AQC algorithms. It is shown that every monadic second-order logic (MSOL) expression has associated pseudo-Boolean maps that can be obtained by expanding the given expression, and also can be reduced to quadratic forms. Table of Contents: Preface / Acknowledgments / Introduction / Approximability of NP-hard Problems / Adiabatic Quantum Computing / Efficient Hamiltonian Construction / AQC for Pseudo-Boolean Optimization / A General Strategy to Solve NP-Hard Problems / Conclusions / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies

Mathematics Of Quantum Computing

Mathematics of Quantum Computing PDF
Author: Wolfgang Scherer
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030123588
Size: 55.12 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 764
View: 5588

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This textbook presents the elementary aspects of quantum computing in a mathematical form. It is intended as core or supplementary reading for physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists taking a first course on quantum computing. It starts by introducing the basic mathematics required for quantum mechanics, and then goes on to present, in detail, the notions of quantum mechanics, entanglement, quantum gates, and quantum algorithms, of which Shor's factorisation and Grover's search algorithm are discussed extensively. In addition, the algorithms for the Abelian Hidden Subgroup and Discrete Logarithm problems are presented and the latter is used to show how the Bitcoin digital signature may be compromised. It also addresses the problem of error correction as well as giving a detailed exposition of adiabatic quantum computing. The book contains around 140 exercises for the student, covering all of the topics treated, together with an appendix of solutions.

Electron Spin Resonance Esr Based Quantum Computing

Electron Spin Resonance  ESR  Based Quantum Computing PDF
Author: Takeji Takui
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493936581
Size: 23.74 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 255
View: 435

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This book addresses electron spin-qubit based quantum computing and quantum information processing with a strong focus on the background and applications to EPR/ESR technique and spectroscopy. It explores a broad spectrum of topics including quantum computing, information processing, quantum effects in electron-nuclear coupled molecular spin systems, adiabatic quantum computing, heat bath algorithmic cooling with spins, and gateway schemes of quantum control for spin networks to NMR quantum information. The organization of the book places emphasis on relevant molecular qubit spectroscopy. These revolutionary concepts have never before been included in a comprehensive volume that covers theory, physical basis, technological basis, applications, and new advances in this emerging field. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Based Quantum Computing, co-edited by leading and renowned researchers Takeji Takui, Graeme Hanson and Lawrence J Berliner, is an ideal resource for students and researchers in the fields of EPR/ESR, NMR and quantum computing. This book also • Explores methods of harnessing quantum effects in electron-nuclear coupled molecular spin systems • Expertly discusses applications of optimal control theory in quantum computing • Broadens the readers’ understanding of NMR quantum information processing

Quantum Machine Learning

Quantum Machine Learning PDF
Author: Peter Wittek
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128010991
Size: 48.68 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 176
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Quantum Machine Learning bridges the gap between abstract developments in quantum computing and the applied research on machine learning. Paring down the complexity of the disciplines involved, it focuses on providing a synthesis that explains the most important machine learning algorithms in a quantum framework. Theoretical advances in quantum computing are hard to follow for computer scientists, and sometimes even for researchers involved in the field. The lack of a step-by-step guide hampers the broader understanding of this emergent interdisciplinary body of research. Quantum Machine Learning sets the scene for a deeper understanding of the subject for readers of different backgrounds. The author has carefully constructed a clear comparison of classical learning algorithms and their quantum counterparts, thus making differences in computational complexity and learning performance apparent. This book synthesizes of a broad array of research into a manageable and concise presentation, with practical examples and applications. Bridges the gap between abstract developments in quantum computing with the applied research on machine learning Provides the theoretical minimum of machine learning, quantum mechanics, and quantum computing Gives step-by-step guidance to a broader understanding of this emergent interdisciplinary body of research

Quantum Quenching Annealing And Computation

Quantum Quenching  Annealing and Computation PDF
Author: Anjan Kumar Chandra
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642114695
Size: 46.77 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 320
View: 2667

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The process of realizing the ground state of some typical (frustrated) quantum many-body systems, starting from the ‘disordered’ or excited states, can be formally mapped to the search of solutions for computationally hard problems. The dynamics through the critical point, in between, are therefore extremely crucial. In the context of such computational optimization problems, the dynamics (of rapid quenching or slow annealing), while tuning the appropriate elds or uctuations, in particular while crossing the quantum critical point, are extremely intriguing and are being investigated these days intensively. Several successful methods and tricks are now well established. This volume gives a collection of introductory reviews on such developments written by well-known experts. It concentrates on quantum phase transitions and their dynamics as the transition or critical points are crossed. Both the quenching and annealing dynamics are extensively covered. We hope these timely reviews will inspire the young researchers to join and c- tribute to this fast-growing, intellectually challenging, as well as technologically demanding eld. We are extremely thankful to the contributors for their intensive work and pleasant cooperations. We are also very much indebted to Kausik Das for his help in compiling this book. Finally, we express our gratitude to Johannes Zittartz, Series Editor, LNP, and Christian Caron of physics editorial department of Springer for their encouragement and support.