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Adiabatic Quantum Computation And Quantum Annealing

Adiabatic Quantum Computation and Quantum Annealing PDF
Author: Catherine C. McGeoch
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627053360
Size: 40.56 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 93
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Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the ``native instruction set'' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a novel computing platform designed to solve NP-hard optimization problems. Starting with a 16-qubit prototype announced in 2007, the company has launched and sold increasingly larger models: the 128-qubit D-Wave One system was announced in 2010 and the 512-qubit D-Wave Two system arrived on the scene in 2013. A 1,000-qubit model is expected to be available in 2014. This monograph presents an introductory overview of this unusual and rapidly developing approach to computation. We start with a survey of basic principles of quantum computation and what is known about the AQC model and the QA algorithm paradigm. Next we review the D-Wave technology stack and discuss some challenges to building and using quantum computing systems at a commercial scale. The last chapter reviews some experimental efforts to understand the properties and capabilities of these unusual platforms. The discussion throughout is aimed at an audience of computer scientists with little background in quantum computation or in physics.

Adiabatic Quantum Computation And Quantum

Adiabatic Quantum Computation and Quantum PDF
Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 70.64 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Electronic book
Languages : en
Pages :
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Annotation Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the native instruction set'' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a novel computing platform designed to solve NP-hard optimization problems. Starting with a 16-qubit prototype announced in 2007, the company has launched and sold increasingly larger models: the 128-qubit D-Wave One system was announced in 2010 and the 512-qubit D-Wave Two system arrived on the scene in 2013. A 1,000-qubit model is expected to be available in 2014. This monograph presents an introductory overview of this unusual and rapidly developing approach to computation. We start with a survey of basic principles of quantum computation and what is known about the AQC model and the QA algorithm paradigm. Next we review the D-Wave technology stack and discuss some challenges to building and using quantum computing systems at a commercial scale. The last chapter reviews some experimental efforts to understand the properties and capabilities of these unusual platforms. The discussion throughout is aimed at an audience of computer scientists with little background in quantum computation or in physics.

Fundamentals Of Quantum Computing

Fundamentals of Quantum Computing PDF
Author: Venkateswaran Kasirajan
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783030636883
Size: 79.62 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 478
View: 7252

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This introductory book on quantum computing includes an emphasis on the development of algorithms. Appropriate for both university students as well as software developers interested in programming a quantum computer, this practical approach to modern quantum computing takes the reader through the required background and up to the latest developments. Beginning with introductory chapters on the required math and quantum mechanics, Fundamentals of Quantum Computing proceeds to describe four leading qubit modalities and explains the core principles of quantum computing in detail. Providing a step-by-step derivation of math and source code, some of the well-known quantum algorithms are explained in simple ways so the reader can try them either on IBM Q or Microsoft QDK. The book also includes a chapter on adiabatic quantum computing and modern concepts such as topological quantum computing and surface codes. Features: o Foundational chapters that build the necessary background on math and quantum mechanics. o Examples and illustrations throughout provide a practical approach to quantum programming with end-of-chapter exercises. o Detailed treatment on four leading qubit modalities -- trapped-ion, superconducting transmons, topological qubits, and quantum dots -- teaches how qubits work so that readers can understand how quantum computers work under the hood and devise efficient algorithms and error correction codes. Also introduces protected qubits - 0-π qubits, fluxon parity protected qubits, and charge-parity protected qubits. o Principles of quantum computing, such as quantum superposition principle, quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation, no-cloning theorem, quantum parallelism, and quantum interference are explained in detail. A dedicated chapter on quantum algorithm explores both oracle-based, and Quantum Fourier Transform-based algorithms in detail with step-by-step math and working code that runs on IBM QisKit and Microsoft QDK. Topics on EPR Paradox, Quantum Key Distribution protocols, Density Matrix formalism, and Stabilizer formalism are intriguing. While focusing on the universal gate model of quantum computing, this book also introduces adiabatic quantum computing and quantum annealing. This book includes a section on fault-tolerant quantum computing to make the discussions complete. The topics on Quantum Error Correction, Surface codes such as Toric code and Planar code, and protected qubits help explain how fault tolerance can be built at the system level.

Quantum Computing And Quantum Bits In Mesoscopic Systems

Quantum Computing and Quantum Bits in Mesoscopic Systems PDF
Author: Anthony Leggett
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1441990925
Size: 21.72 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 273
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Quantum information science is a new field of science and technology which requires the collaboration of researchers coming from different fields of physics, mathematics, and engineering: both theoretical and applied. Quantum Computing and Quantum Bits in Mesoscopic Systems addresses fundamental aspects of quantum physics, enhancing the connection between the quantum behavior of macroscopic systems and information theory. In addition to theoretical quantum physics, the book comprehensively explores practical implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices. On the experimental side, this book reports on recent and previous observations of quantum behavior in several physical systems, coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum dots, superconducting quantum interference devices, Cooper pair boxes, and electron pumps in the context of the Josephson effect. In these systems, the book discusses all required steps, from fabrication through characterization to the final basic implementation for quantum computing.

Quantum Information Processing Quantum Computing And Quantum Error Correction

Quantum Information Processing  Quantum Computing  and Quantum Error Correction PDF
Author: Ivan B. Djordjevic
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128219874
Size: 74.85 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 838
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The Second Edition of Quantum Information Processing, Quantum Computing, and Quantum Error Correction: An Engineering Approach presents a self-contained introduction to all aspects of the area, teaching the essentials such as state vectors, operators, density operators, measurements, and dynamics of a quantum system. In additional to the fundamental principles of quantum computation, basic quantum gates, basic quantum algorithms, and quantum information processing, this edition has been brought fully up to date, outlining the latest research trends. These include: Key topics include: Quantum error correction codes (QECCs), including stabilizer codes, Calderbank-Shor-Steane (CSS) codes, quantum low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes, entanglement-assisted QECCs, topological codes, and surface codes Quantum information theory, and quantum key distribution (QKD) Fault-tolerant information processing and fault-tolerant quantum error correction, together with a chapter on quantum machine learning. Both quantum circuits- and measurement-based quantum computational models are described The next part of the book is spent investigating physical realizations of quantum computers, encoders and decoders; including photonic quantum realization, cavity quantum electrodynamics, and ion traps In-depth analysis of the design and realization of a quantum information processing and quantum error correction circuits This fully up-to-date new edition will be of use to engineers, computer scientists, optical engineers, physicists and mathematicians. A self-contained introduction to quantum information processing, and quantum error correction Integrates quantum information processing, quantum computing, and quantum error correction Describes the latest trends in the quantum information processing, quantum error correction and quantum computing Presents the basic concepts of quantum mechanics In-depth presentation of the design and realization of a quantum information processing and quantum error correction circuit

Mathematics Of Quantum Computing

Mathematics of Quantum Computing PDF
Author: Wolfgang Scherer
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030123588
Size: 66.20 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 764
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This textbook presents the elementary aspects of quantum computing in a mathematical form. It is intended as core or supplementary reading for physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists taking a first course on quantum computing. It starts by introducing the basic mathematics required for quantum mechanics, and then goes on to present, in detail, the notions of quantum mechanics, entanglement, quantum gates, and quantum algorithms, of which Shor's factorisation and Grover's search algorithm are discussed extensively. In addition, the algorithms for the Abelian Hidden Subgroup and Discrete Logarithm problems are presented and the latter is used to show how the Bitcoin digital signature may be compromised. It also addresses the problem of error correction as well as giving a detailed exposition of adiabatic quantum computing. The book contains around 140 exercises for the student, covering all of the topics treated, together with an appendix of solutions.

Quantum Spin Glasses Annealing And Computation

Quantum Spin Glasses  Annealing and Computation PDF
Author: Bikas K. Chakrabarti
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107113199
Size: 24.16 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 350
View: 5071

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Quantum annealing is a new-generation tool of information technology, which helps in solving combinatorial optimization problems with high precision, based on the concepts of quantum statistical physics. Detailed discussion on quantum spin glasses and its application in solving combinatorial optimization problems is required for better understanding of quantum annealing concepts. Fulfilling this requirement, the book highlights recent development in quantum spin glasses including Nishimori line, replica method and quantum annealing methods along with the essential principles. Separate chapters on simulated annealing, quantum dynamics and classical spin models are provided for enhanced learning. Important topics including adiabatic quantum computers and quenching dynamics are discussed in detail. This text will be useful for students of quantum computation, quantum information, statistical physics and computer science.

Electron Spin Resonance Esr Based Quantum Computing

Electron Spin Resonance  ESR  Based Quantum Computing PDF
Author: Takeji Takui
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493936581
Size: 58.36 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 255
View: 4601

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This book addresses electron spin-qubit based quantum computing and quantum information processing with a strong focus on the background and applications to EPR/ESR technique and spectroscopy. It explores a broad spectrum of topics including quantum computing, information processing, quantum effects in electron-nuclear coupled molecular spin systems, adiabatic quantum computing, heat bath algorithmic cooling with spins, and gateway schemes of quantum control for spin networks to NMR quantum information. The organization of the book places emphasis on relevant molecular qubit spectroscopy. These revolutionary concepts have never before been included in a comprehensive volume that covers theory, physical basis, technological basis, applications, and new advances in this emerging field. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Based Quantum Computing, co-edited by leading and renowned researchers Takeji Takui, Graeme Hanson and Lawrence J Berliner, is an ideal resource for students and researchers in the fields of EPR/ESR, NMR and quantum computing. This book also • Explores methods of harnessing quantum effects in electron-nuclear coupled molecular spin systems • Expertly discusses applications of optimal control theory in quantum computing • Broadens the readers’ understanding of NMR quantum information processing

Quantum Computing An Environment For Intelligent Large Scale Real Application

Quantum Computing An Environment for Intelligent Large Scale Real Application PDF
Author: Aboul Ella Hassanien
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319636391
Size: 60.14 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 505
View: 5705

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This book highlights practical quantum key distribution systems and research on the implementations of next-generation quantum communication, as well as photonic quantum device technologies. It discusses how the advances in quantum computing and quantum physics have allowed the building, launching and deploying of space exploration systems that are capable of more and more as they become smaller and lighter. It also presents theoretical and experimental research on the potential and limitations of secure communication and computation with quantum devices, and explores how security can be preserved in the presence of a quantum computer, and how to achieve long-distance quantum communication. The development of a real quantum computer is still in the early stages, but a number of research groups have investigated the theoretical possibilities of such computers.

Approximability Of Optimization Problems Through Adiabatic Quantum Computation

Approximability of Optimization Problems through Adiabatic Quantum Computation PDF
Author: William Cruz-Santos
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627055576
Size: 76.57 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 113
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The adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is based on the adiabatic theorem to approximate solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The design of an AQC algorithm involves the construction of a Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of the quantum system. This Hamiltonian is expressed as a linear interpolation of an initial Hamiltonian whose ground state is easy to compute, and a final Hamiltonian whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a given combinatorial optimization problem. The adiabatic theorem asserts that if the time evolution of a quantum system described by a Hamiltonian is large enough, then the system remains close to its ground state. An AQC algorithm uses the adiabatic theorem to approximate the ground state of the final Hamiltonian that corresponds to the solution of the given optimization problem. In this book, we investigate the computational simulation of AQC algorithms applied to the MAX-SAT problem. A symbolic analysis of the AQC solution is given in order to understand the involved computational complexity of AQC algorithms. This approach can be extended to other combinatorial optimization problems and can be used for the classical simulation of an AQC algorithm where a Hamiltonian problem is constructed. This construction requires the computation of a sparse matrix of dimension 2n × 2n, by means of tensor products, where n is the dimension of the quantum system. Also, a general scheme to design AQC algorithms is proposed, based on a natural correspondence between optimization Boolean variables and quantum bits. Combinatorial graph problems are in correspondence with pseudo-Boolean maps that are reduced in polynomial time to quadratic maps. Finally, the relation among NP-hard problems is investigated, as well as its logical representability, and is applied to the design of AQC algorithms. It is shown that every monadic second-order logic (MSOL) expression has associated pseudo-Boolean maps that can be obtained by expanding the given expression, and also can be reduced to quadratic forms. Table of Contents: Preface / Acknowledgments / Introduction / Approximability of NP-hard Problems / Adiabatic Quantum Computing / Efficient Hamiltonian Construction / AQC for Pseudo-Boolean Optimization / A General Strategy to Solve NP-Hard Problems / Conclusions / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies

Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing PDF
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 030947969X
Size: 10.66 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 846

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Quantum mechanics, the subfield of physics that describes the behavior of very small (quantum) particles, provides the basis for a new paradigm of computing. First proposed in the 1980s as a way to improve computational modeling of quantum systems, the field of quantum computing has recently garnered significant attention due to progress in building small-scale devices. However, significant technical advances will be required before a large-scale, practical quantum computer can be achieved. Quantum Computing: Progress and Prospects provides an introduction to the field, including the unique characteristics and constraints of the technology, and assesses the feasibility and implications of creating a functional quantum computer capable of addressing real-world problems. This report considers hardware and software requirements, quantum algorithms, drivers of advances in quantum computing and quantum devices, benchmarks associated with relevant use cases, the time and resources required, and how to assess the probability of success.

Practical Quantum Computing For Developers

Practical Quantum Computing for Developers PDF
Author: Vladimir Silva
Publisher: Apress
ISBN: 1484242181
Size: 11.46 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 346
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Write algorithms and program in the new field of quantum computing. This book covers major topics such as the physical components of a quantum computer: qubits, entanglement, logic gates, circuits, and how they differ from a traditional computer. Also, Practical Quantum Computing for Developers discusses quantum computing in the cloud using IBM Q Experience including: the composer, quantum scores, experiments, circuits, simulators, real quantum devices, and more. You’ll be able to run experiments in the cloud on a real quantum device. Furthermore, this book shows you how to do quantum programming using the QISKit (Quantum Information Software Kit), Python SDK, and other APIs such as QASM (Quantum Assembly). You’ll learn to write code using these languages and execute it against simulators (local or remote) or a real quantum computer provided by IBM’s Q Experience. Finally, you’ll learn the current quantum algorithms for entanglement, random number generation, linear search, integer factorization, and others. You’ll peak inside the inner workings of the Bell states for entanglement, Grover’s algorithm for linear search, Shor’s algorithm for integer factorization, and other algorithms in the fields of optimization, and more. Along the way you’ll also cover game theory with the Magic Square, an example of quantum pseudo-telepathy where parties sharing entangled states can be observed to have some kind of communication between them. In this game Alice and Bob play against a referee. Quantum mechanics allows Alice and Bob to always win! By the end of this book, you will understand how this emerging technology provides massive parallelism and significant computational speedups over classical computers, and will be prepared to program quantum computers which are expected to replace traditional computers in the data center. What You Will Learn Use the Q Experience Composer, the first-of-its-kind web console to create visual programs/experiments and submit them to a quantum simulator or real device on the cloud Run programs remotely using the Q Experience REST API Write algorithms that provide superior performance over their classical counterparts Build a Node.js REST client for authenticating, listing remote devices, querying information about quantum processors, and listing or running experiments remotely in the cloud Create a quantum number generator: The quintessential coin flip with a quantum twist Discover quantum teleportation: This algorithm demonstrates how the exact state of a qubit (quantum information) can be transmitted from one location to another, with the help of classical communication and quantum entanglement between the sender and receiver Peek into single qubit operations with the classic game of Battleships with a quantum twist Handle the counterfeit coin problem: a classic puzzle that consists of finding a counterfeit coin in a beam balance among eight coins in only two turns Who This Book Is For Developers and programmers interested in this new field of computing.

Lectures On Quantum Computing Thermodynamics And Statistical Physics

Lectures on Quantum Computing  Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics PDF
Author: Mikio Nakahara
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814425184
Size: 71.55 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 190
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Quantum Annealing: From Viewpoints of Statistical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, and Computational Physics (Shu Tanaka and Ryo Tamura); Spin Glass: A Bridge between Quantum Computation and Statistical Mechanics (Masayuki Ohzeki); Second Law-like Inequalities with Quantum Relative Entropy: An Introduction (Takahiro Sagawa).

Principles Of Quantum Artificial Intelligence Quantum Problem Solving And Machine Learning Second Edition

Principles Of Quantum Artificial Intelligence  Quantum Problem Solving And Machine Learning  Second Edition  PDF
Author: Andreas Miroslaus Wichert
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9811224323
Size: 66.25 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 496
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This unique compendium presents an introduction to problem solving, information theory, statistical machine learning, stochastic methods and quantum computation. It indicates how to apply quantum computation to problem solving, machine learning and quantum-like models to decision making — the core disciplines of artificial intelligence.Most of the chapters were rewritten and extensive new materials were updated. New topics include quantum machine learning, quantum-like Bayesian networks and mind in Everett many-worlds.

Quantum Computing Verstehen

Quantum Computing verstehen PDF
Author: Matthias Homeister
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3658104554
Size: 49.41 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Computers
Languages : de
Pages : 311
View: 3042

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Anschaulich und auf Beispiele gestützt führt dieses Buch in die Grundlagen des Quantum Computing ein. Alle wesentlichen Ergebnisse werden detailliert und intuitiv dargestellt. Der Leser erfährt, was er von dieser Technologie erwarten kann und wo ihre Grenzen liegen. Das Besondere an dieser Einführung ist, dass keine speziellen Kenntnisse vorausgesetzt werden. Alle wichtigen Begriffe werden umfassend eingeführt, ein mathematischer Anhang stellt benötigte Grundlagen kurz dar.

Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing PDF
Author: Eleanor G. Rieffel
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262295067
Size: 66.63 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 392
View: 4712

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A thorough exposition of quantum computing and the underlying concepts of quantum physics, with explanations of the relevant mathematics and numerous examples. The combination of two of the twentieth century's most influential and revolutionary scientific theories, information theory and quantum mechanics, gave rise to a radically new view of computing and information. Quantum information processing explores the implications of using quantum mechanics instead of classical mechanics to model information and its processing. Quantum computing is not about changing the physical substrate on which computation is done from classical to quantum but about changing the notion of computation itself, at the most basic level. The fundamental unit of computation is no longer the bit but the quantum bit or qubit. This comprehensive introduction to the field offers a thorough exposition of quantum computing and the underlying concepts of quantum physics, explaining all the relevant mathematics and offering numerous examples. With its careful development of concepts and thorough explanations, the book makes quantum computing accessible to students and professionals in mathematics, computer science, and engineering. A reader with no prior knowledge of quantum physics (but with sufficient knowledge of linear algebra) will be able to gain a fluent understanding by working through the book.

Quantum Quenching Annealing And Computation

Quantum Quenching  Annealing and Computation PDF
Author: Anjan Kumar Chandra
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642114695
Size: 12.88 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 320
View: 6708

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The process of realizing the ground state of some typical (frustrated) quantum many-body systems, starting from the ‘disordered’ or excited states, can be formally mapped to the search of solutions for computationally hard problems. The dynamics through the critical point, in between, are therefore extremely crucial. In the context of such computational optimization problems, the dynamics (of rapid quenching or slow annealing), while tuning the appropriate elds or uctuations, in particular while crossing the quantum critical point, are extremely intriguing and are being investigated these days intensively. Several successful methods and tricks are now well established. This volume gives a collection of introductory reviews on such developments written by well-known experts. It concentrates on quantum phase transitions and their dynamics as the transition or critical points are crossed. Both the quenching and annealing dynamics are extensively covered. We hope these timely reviews will inspire the young researchers to join and c- tribute to this fast-growing, intellectually challenging, as well as technologically demanding eld. We are extremely thankful to the contributors for their intensive work and pleasant cooperations. We are also very much indebted to Kausik Das for his help in compiling this book. Finally, we express our gratitude to Johannes Zittartz, Series Editor, LNP, and Christian Caron of physics editorial department of Springer for their encouragement and support.