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Genotype By Environment Interactions And Sexual Selection

Genotype by Environment Interactions and Sexual Selection PDF
Author: John Hunt
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118912624
Size: 58.82 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 360
View: 6417

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Sexual selection is recognized as being responsible for some ofthe most extravagant morphologies and behaviors in the naturalworld, as well as a driver of some of the most rapid evolution.While Charles Darwin’s theory is now a fundamental componentof modern evolutionary biology, the impact ofgenotype-by-environment interactions on sexual selection has thusfar received little attention. This book represents the first comprehensive analysis of therole genotype-by-environment interactions play in sexual selectionand the potential implications that they have for the evolutionaryprocess. The Editors have identified 13 topics that currentlydefine the field and shed light on the impacts of theseinteractions on sexual selection. This includes key topics, such asresolving the lek paradox and how genotype-by-environmentalinteractions can compromise the honesty of sexual signals. Thevolume also outlines key questions that remain unanswered andprovides a comprehensive guide to analyzing genotype-by-environmentinteractions. The mix of theory, empirical studies, and practical instructionsfrom world leading experts make this book a particularly potent anddefinitive guide on the topic. It will be of interest toevolutionary biologists, spanning from genomicists tobehaviorists. “This is a very timely book, covering a topic thatshould change the way we think about sexual selection. Thecontributors are all leaders and the topics should provide guidanceto many PhD projects in the years to come. GEI is increasinglyshown to be important, and it seems likely that it is critical inspecies where sexual selection is operating. This book is likely tohelp revitalize the study of sexual selection.” ProfessorAllen Moore, The University of Georgia “GEIs fascinate evolutionary biologists, but the uniqueconsequences for sexually selected traits have been neglected -until now. This multi-authored book comprehensively explains keytheoretical concepts, handles practical ‘how to’ issuesand uses classic case studies to illustrate the value of studyingGEIs. It is a must read for everyone interested in sexualselection.” Professor Michael Jennions, The AustralianNational University

Genotype By Environment Interactions And Sexual Selection

Genotype by environment Interactions and Sexual Selection PDF
Author: Fiona Caroline Ingleby
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 47.20 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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Genotype-by-environment interactions (G x Es) describe genetic variation for phenotypic plasticity, such that the relative performance of genotypes varies across environments. These interactions have been studied in the context of natural selection for decades, but research interest in the evolutionary consequences of G x Es in sexual traits is more recent. Theory suggests that G x Es in sexual traits could be of fundamental importance to the operation of sexual selection across heterogeneous environments, but empirical research lags behind the theory. In this thesis, I review the current literature on the role of G x Es in sexual selection and identify areas for further research. Using cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in the fruit fly Drosophila simulans as a model system for sexual selection, I examine G x Es in trait expression and quantify the effect of these G x Es in terms of sexual signal reliability and the coevolution of male and female sexual traits. To do so, I use a combination of quantitative genetics and laboratory environmental manipulations. First, I demonstrate that male CHC profile is subject to sexual selection through female mate choice and find some variation in patterns of mate choice across diets and temperatures (Chapter 3). Next, I identify G x Es in male and female CHC expression across diets and temperatures, although G x Es in male CHC profile across temperatures are weak (Chapter 4). I find that G x Es in male CHC expression can cause sexual signal unreliability, as predicted by theory, since male CHCs do not reliably signal heritable aspects of male attractiveness across diets and temperatures (Chapter 5). I also find G x Es in some aspects of female mate choice across temperatures (Chapter 6). In spite of the evidence for signal unreliability and variation in female mate choice across environments, I show that the overall outcome of mate choice is unaffected by G x Es, such that the same male genotypes are attractive across diets and temperatures (Chapters 5 and 6). From my results, it seems likely that females assess male attractiveness based on multiple male sexual signals, so that whilst male CHCs influence mate choice, CHC profile does not necessarily correlate well with overall male attractiveness. I discuss the implications of these results for the evolution of sexual traits and the genetic covariance between male and female sexual traits across environments. The research in this thesis highlights the importance of multivariate studies of sexual selection across environments for a more complete understanding of the evolution of sexual traits.

Exposing Resource Allocation Trade Offs In Sexual Selection

Exposing Resource Allocation Trade offs in Sexual Selection PDF
Author: Md Rahman Rahman
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 33.63 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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[Truncated] Environmental and ecological conditions shape the evolution of life history traits in many species. Among such factors, food quality or nutrition availability can play an important role in moderating an animal's life history traits. In particular, it has been argued that sexually selected traits should exhibit heightened condition dependence, and theory predicts that only the fittest males are able to acquire and allocate the resources required for their expression. Because male condition is dependent on resource allocation, condition dependence in sexual traits is expected to underlie trade-offs between reproduction and other life-history functions. My thesis works towards determining whether such trade-offs and resource availability influence the expression of precopulatory (sexual behaviour and sexual ornamentation) and postcopulatory traits (the quality, size and number of sperm) in the guppy Poecilia reticulata, a polyandrous live bearing freshwater fish. In addition to studying condition dependence in these sexual traits, I also explore their genetic basis under experimentally manipulated dietary conditions, thus enabling me to determine whether genotype-by-environment interactions underlie the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits in this model species in sexual selection. In my first experimental chapter (Chapter 2), I tested whether experimentally manipulating diet quality (carotenoid levels) and quantity (food levels) influences the expression of pre- and postcopulatory sexual traits. I also determined whether diet manipulation mediates relationships among these traits. The study revealed a significant effect of diet quantity on the expression of both pre- and postcopulatory male traits; diet-restricted males performed fewer sexual behaviours and exhibited significant reductions in colour ornamentation, sperm quality, sperm number, and sperm length than those fed ad libitum. However, contrary to expectation, the study revealed no significant effect of carotenoid manipulation on the expression of any of these traits, and no evidence for a trade-off in resource allocation between pre- and postcopulatory episodes of sexual selection. Thus, while this initial study failed to reveal evidence for the expected co-dependence of pre- and postcopulatory traits on dietary carotenoid levels, it nevertheless underscored the sensitivity of behavioural, ornamental, and ejaculate traits to dietary stress and corroborates prior evidence from guppies that male sexual traits are highly sensitive to levels of resource acquisition. Furthermore, this study emphasised the important role that condition dependence plays in maintaining the high variability in male sexual traits frequently reported in this species.

The Sage Handbook Of Evolutionary Psychology

The Sage Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology PDF
Author: Todd K. Shackelford
Publisher: SAGE
ISBN: 1529737478
Size: 17.68 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 504
View: 1815

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Evolutionary psychology is an important and rapidly expanding area in the life, social, and behavioral sciences, and this Handbook represents the most comprehensive and up-to-date reference text in the field today. Chapters in this Handbook address foundational theories and methodological approaches, providing a rich overview of the most important theoretical and empirical work in the field. The SAGE Handbook of Evolutionary Psychology is an essential resource for researchers, graduate students, and advanced undergraduate students in all areas of psychology, and in related disciplines across the life, social, and behavioral sciences. Part 1: Foundations of Evolution Part 2: Middle-Level Evolutionary Theories Part 3: Research Methods and Strategies

Effects Of Climate Change On Birds

Effects of Climate Change on Birds PDF
Author: Anders Pape Møller
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199569746
Size: 73.71 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 321
View: 723

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Climate change issues are attracting rapidly increasing interest from a wide range of biologists due to their unprecedented effects on global biodiversity including humans. This comprehensive and coherent volume provides an exhaustive and up-to-date synthesis of current level of knowledge as it relates to birds.

Genes And Behaviour

Genes and Behaviour PDF
Author: David J. Hosken
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119313678
Size: 52.12 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 434

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Provides a broad snapshot of recent findings showing how the environment and genes influence behavior The great debate of nature versus nurture rages on — but our understanding of the genetic basis of many behaviors has expanded over the last decade, and there is now very good evidence showing that seemingly complex behaviours can have relatively simple genetic underpinnings, but also that most behaviours have very complicated genetic and environmental architecture. Studies have also clearly shown that behaviors, and other traits, are influenced not just by genes and the environment, but also by the statistical interaction between the two. This book aims to end the nature versus nurture argument by showing that behaviors are nature and nurture and the interaction between the two, and by illustrating how single genes can explain some of the variation in behaviors even when they are seemingly complex. Genes and Behaviour: Beyond Nature-Nurture puts to rest the nature versus nurture dichotomy, providing an up-to-date synopsis of where we are, how far we've come and where we are headed. It considers the effects of a dual-inheritance of genes and culture, and genes and social environment, and highlights how indirect genetic effects can affect the evolution of behavior. It also examines the effect of non-self genes on the behavior of hosts, shines a light on the nature and nurturing of animal minds and invites us to embrace all the complexity nature and nurture generates, and more. Explores exciting new findings about behavior and where we go from here Features contributions by top scholars of the subject Seeks to end the nature versus nurture debate forever Genes and Behaviour: Beyond Nature-Nurture is a unique, and eye-opening read that will appeal to Ph.D. Students, post-doctoral fellows, and researchers in evolution and behavior. Additionally, the book will also be of interest to geneticists, sociologists and philosophers.

Causes And Consequences Of Female Mate Choice In Drosophila Melanogaster

Causes and Consequences of Female Mate Choice in Drosophila Melanogaster PDF
Author: Hannah Marie Elaine Tennant
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 38.58 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Behavioral psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 234
View: 3758

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One of Darwin's greatest questions, the reason why females prefer elaborate sexually selected male traits and displays, was elucidated by the Fisherian coevolution of male traits and female preferences. While variation, in male attractiveness and ornamentation has received much attention, there has been little attempt to evaluate the causes and consequences of intraspecific variation in components of female preference. Furthermore, demonstrating a genetic basis to female preference does not answer the question of how within-population genetic variation is maintained. Understanding the sources of variation in potential mating interactions between males and females is important because this variation determines the strength and the direction that evolution via sexual selection will proceed. Using cytogenetic cloning techniques developed for Drosophila melanogaster - an important model species for sexual selection and sexual conflict research - I examined not only the contribution of genetic variation from in each sex to observed phenotypic variation in biologically important traits such as mating speed, copulation duration, and subsequent offspring production, but also quantified the magnitude of intersexual genetic correlations (Chapter 2). By decomposing the genetic components of interacting phenotypes in mating behaviours between the sexes, we identified possible mechanisms maintaining genetic variation (i.e. sexual conflict) due to the presence of a negative genetic correlation between male attractiveness and female choosiness. These results may provide a framework to improve theoretical models of sexual selection and to provide a more cohesive understanding of the coevolutionary dynamics between male attractiveness and female choosiness for future empirical studies. Even traits that have a strong genetic basis can be profoundly influenced by environmental conditions, such that the same genotype may yield quantitatively or qualitatively different phenotypes in different environments. While Chapter 2 confirmed genetic variation for female responsiveness, whether or not components of female preference, mainly choosiness, varied with individual condition had yet to be determined. In Chapter 3 I experimentally manipulated female condition by varying the larval density for hemiclonal females (the same lines from Chapter 2) to determine if a genotype-byenvironment (GxE) existed for female choosiness. The absence of a GxE interaction for female choosiness suggests that this component of female preference may not be condition dependent. Since GxE interactions may be potentially important to sexual selection, especially if both sexually selected male traits and female preferences are subject to GxEs (and genetic correlations between the two are central to many models of sexual selection), more empirical work on the condition-dependence of female choosiness is needed to strengthen predictions of GxEs for sexually selected traits. These results demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, findings regarding the causes and consequences of variation in female mate choice using hemiclonal analysis. Furthermore, the importance of quantifying genetic variation in female mate choice - including how it is maintained - is necessary for theoretical models of sexual selection.

The American Naturalist

The American Naturalist PDF
Author:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 43.36 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Natural history
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 7442

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