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Germany

Germany PDF
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Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 38.65 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Economic development
Languages : en
Pages : 72
View: 2966

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"Germany fundamentals are sound: balance sheets are generally healthy, unemployment is at a historic low, and the fiscal position is strong. While a recovery is underway, medium-term growth prospects are subdued and the current account surplus remains high. The economy also faces a still weak international environment, lingering uncertainty (including about future energy costs), and fast approaching adverse demographic changes. Germany could do more to increase its growth, thus strengthening its role as an engine of euro area recovery. Policy recommendations: Germany has the fiscal space to finance an increase in needed public investment, particularly in the transport infrastructure. Unlike public consumption, this would durably raise German output and have measurable growth spillovers on the rest of the euro area. Further reforms in services sector regulation would boost competition and productivity. Greater clarity about the future energy sector regulatory framework would encourage private investment in the energy infrastructure and beyond and strengthen the outlook. Decisions on the future level of the minimum wage should take into account the employment effects in certain regions. Banks should keep strengthening their capital position ahead of the completion of the ECB's Comprehensive Assessment. The macroprudential framework needs to be ready as monetary conditions are set to remain accommodative for a prolonged period"--Abstract.

Germany 2014 Article Iv Consultation Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Germany

Germany  2014 Article IV Consultation Staff Report  Press Release  and Statement by the Executive Director for Germany PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498318541
Size: 14.64 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 72
View: 7108

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KEY ISSUES Context: ? Germany fundamentals are sound: balance sheets are generally healthy, unemployment is at a historic low, and the fiscal position is strong. ? While a recovery is underway, medium-term growth prospects are subdued and the current account surplus remains high. The economy also faces a still weak international environment, lingering uncertainty (including about future energy costs), and fast approaching adverse demographic changes. ? Germany could do more to increase its growth, thus strengthening its role as an engine of euro area recovery. Policy recommendations: ? Germany has the fiscal space to finance an increase in needed public investment, particularly in the transport infrastructure. Unlike public consumption, this would durably raise German output and have measurable growth spillovers on the rest of the euro area. ? Further reforms in services sector regulation would boost competition and productivity. ? Greater clarity about the future energy sector regulatory framework would encourage private investment in the energy infrastructure and beyond and strengthen the outlook. ? Decisions on the future level of the minimum wage should take into account the employment effects in certain regions. ? Banks should keep strengthening their capital position ahead of the completion of the ECB’s Comprehensive Assessment. ? The macroprudential framework needs to be ready as monetary conditions are set to remain accommodative for a prolonged period.

Germany 2021 Article Iv Consultation Press Release Staff Report And Statement By The Executive Director For Germany

Germany  2021 Article IV Consultation Press Release  Staff Report  and Statement by the Executive Director for Germany PDF
Author: International Monetary
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513594435
Size: 10.22 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 77
View: 4027

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Germany’s economy contracted by just under 5 percent in 2020, outperforming most European peers. But renewed waves of infections and associated lockdowns caused economic activity to plunge again in the first quarter of this year. While the pace of mass vaccination has picked up and the economy has started to reopen, the recovery path is beset with risks, particularly with respect to the progress of the pandemic and supply shortages in major industries. The authorities have maintained appropriately accommodative fiscal and financial policies, and most measures supporting households and firms have been extended through 2021.

Germany

Germany PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498307051
Size: 26.82 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 72
View: 1408

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KEY ISSUES Context: ? Germany fundamentals are sound: balance sheets are generally healthy, unemployment is at a historic low, and the fiscal position is strong. ? While a recovery is underway, medium-term growth prospects are subdued and the current account surplus remains high. The economy also faces a still weak international environment, lingering uncertainty (including about future energy costs), and fast approaching adverse demographic changes. ? Germany could do more to increase its growth, thus strengthening its role as an engine of euro area recovery. Policy recommendations: ? Germany has the fiscal space to finance an increase in needed public investment, particularly in the transport infrastructure. Unlike public consumption, this would durably raise German output and have measurable growth spillovers on the rest of the euro area. ? Further reforms in services sector regulation would boost competition and productivity. ? Greater clarity about the future energy sector regulatory framework would encourage private investment in the energy infrastructure and beyond and strengthen the outlook. ? Decisions on the future level of the minimum wage should take into account the employment effects in certain regions. ? Banks should keep strengthening their capital position ahead of the completion of the ECB’s Comprehensive Assessment. ? The macroprudential framework needs to be ready as monetary conditions are set to remain accommodative for a prolonged period.

The Shifting Global Economic Architecture

The Shifting Global Economic Architecture PDF
Author: Jonathan Luckhurst
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319631578
Size: 15.48 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 306
View: 941

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This book analyzes the shifting global economic architecture, indicating the decentralizing authority in global economic governance since the Cold War and, especially, following the 2008-09 global financial crisis. The author examines recent adjustments to the organizational framework, contestation of policy principles, norms, and practices, and destabilizing actor hierarchies, particularly in global macroeconomic, trade, and development governance. The study's ‘analytical eclecticism’ includes a core constructivist IR approach, but also incorporates insights from several international relations theories as well as political and economic theory. The book develops a unique ‘analytical matrix’, which analyzes effects of strategic, political, and cognitive authority in the organizational, policy, and actor contexts of the global economic architecture. It concludes that, despite concerns about potential fragmentation, decentralizing authority has increased the integration of leading developing states and new actors in contemporary global economic governance.

Exportismus

Exportismus PDF
Author: Andreas Nölke
Publisher: Westend Verlag
ISBN: 3864898226
Size: 62.44 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : de
Pages : 176
View: 1056

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Das deutsche Wirtschaftsmodell ist unausgewogen und hochgradig riskant. Der Grund: Die starke Abhängigkeit von der Droge Exportismus. Andreas Nölke zeigt die aktuellen Gefahren der Exportlastigkeit der deutschen Wirtschaft und liefert ein fulminantes Plädoyer für ein neues Wirtschaftsmodell, das nachhaltiger, stabiler und im globalen Kontext ausgewogener balanciert ist.

Das Euro Desaster

Das Euro Desaster PDF
Author: Heiner Flassbeck
Publisher: Westend Verlag
ISBN: 3864897092
Size: 62.59 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : de
Pages : 224
View: 3846

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EUROPA OHNE KRISE IST MÖGLICH ARGUMENTE FÜR EINE ABKEHR VOM NEOLIBERALISMUS Der Euro steckt seit 2008 in einer tiefen Krise, die nicht enden will und den Fortbestand der Währungsunion gefährdet. Doch Deutschland verweigert sich der Einsicht, dass es selbst eine entscheidende Schuld an der Misere hat. Stattdessen werden "Krisenländer" wie Griechenland, Portugal und Spanien als Schuldige an den Pranger gestellt. Jörg Bibow und Heiner Flassbeck zeigen in ihrem Buch, dass die Eurogruppe unter der Führung Deutschlands für die unnötige Verlängerung der Krise verantwortlich ist. Die verordnete Austeritätspolitik und die sogenannte "Arbeitsmarktflexibilisierung" haben die Krise vertieft und verlängert. Bis heute wird nicht verstanden, dass Lohnsenkung unmittelbar die Arbeitslosigkeit erhöht, weil man damit die Binnennachfrage zerstört. Und Frankreich zeigt in diesen Tagen, dass es diese Lektion nicht gelernt hat.

Austria 2014 Article Iv Consultation Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Austria

Austria  2014 Article IV Consultation Staff Report  Press Release  and Statement by the Executive Director for Austria PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498311806
Size: 49.29 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 73
View: 6124

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KEY ISSUES Context: Austria did not experience a severe boom-bust cycle and came through the crisis relatively well. The main impact was on the banking sector and public debt. With cyclical slack low and the recovery taking hold, this is the time to resolve crisis legacies and address long-standing structural issues. Outlook and risks: The recovery is taking hold, driven by a pick-up in exports. The most acute risks are mainly geopolitical and could in particular lead to financial spillovers. Financial sector policies: Bank restructuring should now be rapidly completed and bad asset disposal accelerated. Large internationally active banks should stand ready for further capital increases, and the EU banking union framework needs to be swiftly transposed at the national level. Public expenditure reforms: More decisive expenditure reforms in key areas such as pensions, health care, subsidies, and fiscal federalism would generate savings that could be used for both an accelerated debt reduction and lower labor taxation. Boosting potential output growth: Enhancing IT adaptation, improving the performance of the education system, facilitating access to financing for innovative start- ups, and reducing administrative barriers for new businesses would raise potential growth and labor productivity.

Europ Ische Wirtschaftspolitik

Europ  ische Wirtschaftspolitik PDF
Author: Jens Klose
Publisher: Schäffer-Poeschel
ISBN: 3791041312
Size: 17.96 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : de
Pages : 318
View: 6398

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Das Lehrbuch erläutert Grundlagen der europäischen Wirtschaftspolitik: Fiskalpolitik und ihre Institutionen auf nationaler Ebene Resultierende Koordinationsprobleme Institutionen und Ziele der europäischen Geldpolitik Mithilfe von Modellen werden Auswirkungen und das Zusammenspiel von Fiskal- und Geldpolitik untersucht. Besondere Beachtung finden die fiskal- und geldpolitischen Neuerungen im Gefolge der Finanzkrise von 2008/2009. Mit einem Ausblick auf die zukünftige wirtschaftliche Integration Europas.

Austria 2021 Article Iv Consultation Press Release Staff Report Staff Supplementary Information And Statement By The Executive Director For Austria

Austria  2021 Article IV Consultation Press Release  Staff Report  Staff Supplementary Information  and Statement by the Executive Director for Austria PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513596608
Size: 63.23 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 70
View: 7508

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Austria entered the crisis from a strong position. Prudent policies prior to the pandemic provided significant policy space. Several lockdowns helped contain the virus but significantly impaired the economy. Real GDP contracted by 6.3 percent in 2020 and declined further in early 2021. The 2021 recovery is expected to be modest; the tourism and hospitality sectors will continue to be affected. Over the medium term, growth will accelerate in 2022 and then stabilize at potential, but the output level will remain somewhat below the pre-COVID trend. Uncertainty remains high.

Hungary 2014 Article Iv Consultation Staff Report Press Release And Statement By The Executive Director For Hungary

Hungary  2014 Article IV Consultation Staff Report  Press Release  and Statement by the Executive Director for Hungary PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498306721
Size: 11.26 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 68
View: 3327

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This 2014 Article IV Consultation highlights that Hungary’s economy has emerged from the 2012 recession and posted 1.1 percent growth in 2013, mainly driven by government investment and consumption, and also net exports. Private demand—although strengthening on the back of accommodative monetary conditions and improved market confidence—remained weak, and credit to the retail and corporate sectors continued to contract, albeit at a slowing pace. Hungary’s medium-term growth prospects remain subdued, as private consumption is still hampered by the ongoing repair of households’ balance sheets; the weak business environment continues to weigh on private investment.

Italy 2021 Article Iv Consultation Press Release Staff Report And Statement By The Executive Director For Italy

Italy  2021 Article IV Consultation Press Release  Staff Report  and Statement by the Executive Director for Italy PDF
Author: International Monetary
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 151357308X
Size: 64.16 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 82
View: 2894

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The pandemic dealt a severe blow to the Italian people and their economy. GDP fell by nearly 9 percent in 2020, with much larger drops for contact-intensive services. Public and corporate debt increased strongly and preexisting vulnerabilities have likely worsened. The government is prioritizing resolving the health emergency and transforming the economy to lift productivity, improve social outcomes and strengthen resilience to future shocks and structural change. The large National Recovery and Resilience Plan—partly financed by sizable Next Generation EU resources—will be used to increase physical and social infrastructure. Outlook. GDP is expected to recover strongly in 2021–22 and to grow well-above trend over the medium term, supported by investment spending. Nonetheless, economic scarring could be sizable. The two-sided risks relate to how the pandemic progresses, the efficiency of investment spending and the extent of savings drawdown, with large costs associated with the downside.

Shipping Business Unwrapped

Shipping Business Unwrapped PDF
Author: Okan Duru
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351864785
Size: 23.13 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 130
View: 3232

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The shipping business is a lesser-known industry, but it is an extremely influential element in the global economy. This book provides a snapshot of the shipping business with micro-foundations from the perspectives of institutional and behavioural economics while uncovering hidden facts about the industry. Rather than spending a great deal of time reading many books or consulting costly advisors about fundamental issues, readers can quickly and easily find core concepts examined from multiple perspectives. They will certainly enjoy the engaging, narrative-driven content and learn many surprising truths about this fascinating business.

Switzerland 2021 Article Iv Consultation Press Release Staff Report Staff Statement And Statement By The Executive Director For Switzerland

Switzerland  2021 Article IV Consultation Press Release  Staff Report  Staff Statement  and Statement by the Executive Director for Switzerland PDF
Author: International Monetary
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513585606
Size: 39.41 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 68
View: 1638

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Switzerland has navigated the COVID-19 pandemic well. The pandemic has had major social and economic impacts, but an early, strong, and sustained health and economic policy response helped contain the contraction of activity. Coordinated efforts targeting households and firms stemmed a loss of purchasing power and a rise of unemployment and bankruptcies. Recovery has commenced, but uncertainty and risks remain high, dominated by pandemic dynamics. The rebound should deepen, as vaccination proceeds, containment is eased, and domestic and global demand picks up. Fiscal support has been rightly extended in 2021, and monetary policy remains accommodative. Policies should remain supportive until there are clear signs of sustained recovery; the authorities should expand support if needed. Redirection to fostering green, digital transformation with attention to low-income earners will be needed, including to ensure that prolonged emergency support does not hinder structural changes in the economy.

The European Social Model Under Pressure

The European Social Model under Pressure PDF
Author: Romana Careja
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3658270438
Size: 39.90 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 633
View: 3352

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The European Social Model is at a crossroad. Although from the 1990s onwards, the threat of an imminent crisis shaped much of the rhetoric surrounding the future of the welfare state, disagreement within the academic community remains. What is however increasingly clear is that with the global financial crisis and the Euro crisis that followed it, the challenges the European Social Model faces have become more acute and demand action. This volume launches a multifaceted inquiry into these challenges. Each contribution, written by renowned scholars in their fields, represents an in-depth exploration of issues that cut to the core of current political, economic and social processes. They are an invitation to the seasoned scholars as well as to the beginning students of social sciences, public administration or journalism to engage with, by now, a large body of scholarship, to accompany the authors in their endeavours to seek an explanation to burning questions and start their own inquiries.

External Sector Report July 2019

External Sector Report  July 2019 PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. Monetary and Capital Markets Department
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498318975
Size: 75.73 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 116
View: 500

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The IMF’s 2019 External Sector Report shows that global current account balances stand at about 3 percent of global GDP. Of this, about 35–45 percent are now deemed excessive. Meanwhile, net credit and debtor positions are at historical peaks and about four times larger than in the early 1990s. Short-term financing risks from the current configuration of external imbalances are generally contained, as debtor positions are concentrated in reserve-currency-issuing advanced economies. An intensification of trade tensions or a disorderly Brexit outcome—with further repercussions for global growth and risk aversion—could, however, affect other economies that are highly dependent on foreign demand and external financing. With output near potential in most systemic economies, a well-calibrated macroeconomic and structural policy mix is necessary to support rebalancing. Recent trade policy actions are weighing on global trade flows, investment, and growth, including through confidence effects and the disruption of global supply chains, with no discernible impact on external imbalances thus far.

Republic Of Korea

Republic of Korea PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. Asia and Pacific Dept
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1475529929
Size: 26.80 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 90
View: 773

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This 2016 Article IV Consultation highlights that Korea’s growth has slowed after decades of impressive economic progress. The economy is facing a number of structural headwinds, including unfavorable demographic developments, heavy export reliance, pockets of corporate vulnerability, labor market distortions, lagging productivity, and high household debt. Inequality and poverty are also of concern. Growth is projected to tick up to 2.7 percent in 2016 and 3.0 percent in 2017, with inflation remaining subdued. Credit is expected to continue to grow, partly reflecting the impact of interest rate cuts, but at a slower pace consistent with the tightening of prudential measures and the envisaged moderation in construction investment after 2017.

France

France PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 148432031X
Size: 11.92 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 64
View: 4793

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This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights that the economic recovery is picking up in France, with real GDP growth projected to reach 1.6 percent in 2017 and 1.8 percent in 2018. Growth is primarily driven by buoyant corporate investment, a rebound in residential construction, and solid consumer demand. Net exports, by contrast, have been a drag on growth, and France’s external position is assessed to be weaker than implied by economic fundamentals. Private sector job creation has begun to accelerate moderately and the unemployment rate has begun to recede moderately from its 10 percent post-crisis mark. Medium-term prospects will critically depend on the implementation of the reform agenda.

Belgium

Belgium PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513538837
Size: 16.23 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Health & Fitness
Languages : en
Pages : 69
View: 1089

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This 2020 Article IV Consultation with Belgium highlights that economic activity has held up relatively well over the last year, but the outlook is clouded by unusual uncertainty and risks. The coronavirus outbreak is expected to reduce growth this year, and the outlook is highly uncertain and subject to risks, including more widespread and damaging effects of the coronavirus, escalating trade tensions, a sharper euro-area growth slowdown, and prolonged domestic political gridlock. Policies should focus on addressing the coronavirus outbreak in the near term and rebuilding resilience and addressing structural challenges in the medium run. The immediate policy priority is to contain the spread and damaging effects of the coronavirus through targeted temporary support measures to affected firms and individuals, while ensuring that the healthcare system has adequate resources to address the crisis. Reversing the declining trend in productivity growth is essential to support higher standards of living and safeguard fiscal sustainability. Thus, reform efforts would need to focus on reducing red tape for start-ups, lowering regulatory barriers to competition in key sectors, supporting access to venture capital for innovative firms, and boosting public investment in infrastructure, fiscal space permitting.