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Liquidity Trap And Excessive Leverage

Liquidity Trap and Excessive Leverage PDF
Author: Mr.Anton Korinek
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498370942
Size: 41.35 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 49
View: 6412

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We investigate the role of macroprudential policies in mitigating liquidity traps driven by deleveraging, using a simple Keynesian model. When constrained agents engage in deleveraging, the interest rate needs to fall to induce unconstrained agents to pick up the decline in aggregate demand. However, if the fall in the interest rate is limited by the zero lower bound, aggregate demand is insufficient and the economy enters a liquidity trap. In such an environment, agents' exante leverage and insurance decisions are associated with aggregate demand externalities. The competitive equilibrium allocation is constrained inefficient. Welfare can be improved by ex-ante macroprudential policies such as debt limits and mandatory insurance requirements. The size of the required intervention depends on the differences in marginal propensity to consume between borrowers and lenders during the deleveraging episode. In our model, contractionary monetary policy is inferior to macroprudential policy in addressing excessive leverage, and it can even have the unintended consequence of increasing leverage.

The Costs Of Macroprudential Deleveraging In A Liquidity Trap

The Costs of Macroprudential Deleveraging in a Liquidity Trap PDF
Author: Mr.Jiaqian Chen
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513546805
Size: 54.97 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 66
View: 6056

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We examine the effects of various borrower-based macroprudential tools in a New Keynesian environment where both real and nominal interest rates are low. Our model features long-term debt, housing transaction costs and a zero-lower bound constraint on policy rates. We find that the long-term costs, in terms of forgone consumption, of all the macroprudential tools we consider are moderate. Even so, the short-term costs differ dramatically between alternative tools. Specifically, a loan-to-value tightening is more than twice as contractionary compared to loan-to-income tightening when debt is high and monetary policy cannot accommodate.

New Perspectives On Political Economy And Its History

New Perspectives on Political Economy and Its History PDF
Author: Maria Cristina Marcuzzo
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030429253
Size: 76.14 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 406
View: 5383

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This Festschrift is published in honour of Annalisa Rosselli, a political economist and historian of economic thought, whose academic activity has promoted unconventional ways of thinking throughout her career. A renowned list of scholars articulate and respond to this vision through a series of essays, leading to an advocacy of pluralism and critical thinking in political economy. The book is split into five parts, opening with a section on new topics for the history of economic thought including new perspectives in gender studies and an illustration of the fecundity of the link with economic history. This is followed by sections that address relevant perspectives on the Classical approach to distribution and accumulation, Ricardo, interpretation of Sraffa and the legacy of Keynes. This book will appeal to students interested in reforming economics, as well as academics and economists interested in political economy and the history of economic thought.

Remaking Retirement

Remaking Retirement PDF
Author: Olivia Mitchell
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192637541
Size: 18.82 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 256
View: 5221

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Around the world, people nearing and entering retirement are holding ever-greater levels of debt than in the past. This is not a benign situation, as many pre-retirees and retirees are stressed about their indebtedness. Moreover, this growth in debt among the older population may render retirees vulnerable to financial shocks, medical care bills, and changes in interest rates. Contributors to this volume explore key aspects of the rise in debt across older cohorts, drill down into the types of debt and reasons for debt incurred by the older population, and review policies to remedy some of the financial problems facing older persons, in the US and elsewhere. The authors explore which groups are most affected by debt and identify the factors producing this important increase in leverage at older ages. It is clear that the economic and market environment is influential when it comes to saving and debt. Access to easy borrowing, low interest rates, and the rising cost of education have had significant impacts on how much people borrow, and how much debt they carry at older ages. In this environment, the capacity to manage debt is ever more important as older workers lack the opportunity to recover from mistakes.

Currency Wars Or Efficient Spillovers A General Theory Of International Policy Cooperation

Currency Wars or Efficient Spillovers  A General Theory of International Policy Cooperation PDF
Author: Mr.Anton Korinek
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1475579640
Size: 78.53 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 66
View: 1265

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In an interconnected world, national economic policies regularly lead to large international spillover effects, which frequently trigger calls for international policy cooperation. However, the premise of successful cooperation is that there is a Pareto inefficiency, i.e. if there is scope to make some nations better off without hurting others. This paper presents a first welfare theorem for open economies that defines an efficient benchmark and spells out the conditions that need to be violated to generate inefficiency and scope for cooperation. These are: (i) policymakers act competitively in the international market, (ii) policymakers have sufficient external policy instruments and (iii) international markets are free of imperfections. Our theorem holds even if each economy suffers from a wide range of domestic market imperfections and targeting problems. We provide examples of current account intervention, monetary policy, fiscal policy, macroprudential policy/capital controls, and exchange rate management and show that the resulting spillovers are Pareto efficient, as long as the three conditions are satisfied. Furthermore, we develop general guidelines for how policy cooperation can improve welfare when the conditions are violated.

Fiscal Buffers Private Debt And Stagnation

Fiscal Buffers  Private Debt  and Stagnation PDF
Author: Nicoletta Batini
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 148436550X
Size: 42.94 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 41
View: 7442

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We revisit the empirical relationship between private/public debt and output, and build a model that reproduces it. In the model, the government provides financial assistance to credit-constrained agents to mitigate deleveraging. As we observe in the data, surges in private debt are potentially more damaging for the economy than surges in public debt. The model suggests two policy implications. First, capping leverage leads to milder recessions, but also implies more muted expansions. Second, with fiscal buffers, financial assistance to credit-constrained agents helps avoid stagnation. The growth returns from intervention decline as the government approaches the fiscal limit.

Understanding The Macro Financial Effects Of Household Debt A Global Perspective

Understanding the Macro Financial Effects of Household Debt  A Global Perspective PDF
Author: Adrian Alter
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484349865
Size: 14.78 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 49
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We confirm the negative relationship between household debt and future GDP growth documented in Mian, Sufi, and Verner (2017) for a wider set of countries over the period 1950–2016. Three mutually reinforcing mechanisms help explain this relationship. First, debt overhang impairs household consumption when negative shocks hit. Second, increases in household debt heighten the probability of future banking crises, which significantly disrupts financial intermediation. Third, crash risk may be systematically neglected due to investors’ overoptimistic expectations associated with household debt booms. In addition, several institutional factors such as flexible exchange rates, higher financial development and inclusion are found to mitigate this impact. Finally, the tradeoff between financial inclusion and stability nuances downside risks to growth.

Handbook Of Macroeconomics

Handbook of Macroeconomics PDF
Author: John B. Taylor
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444594884
Size: 51.25 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 2744
View: 7130

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Handbook of Macroeconomics Volumes 2A and 2B surveys major advances in macroeconomic scholarship since the publication of Volume 1 (1999), carefully distinguishing between empirical, theoretical, methodological, and policy issues, including fiscal, monetary, and regulatory policies to deal with crises, unemployment, and economic growth. As this volume shows, macroeconomics has undergone a profound change since the publication of the last volume, due in no small part to the questions thrust into the spotlight by the worldwide financial crisis of 2008. With contributions from the world’s leading macroeconomists, its reevaluation of macroeconomic scholarship and assessment of its future constitute an investment worth making. Serves a double role as a textbook for macroeconomics courses and as a gateway for students to the latest research Acts as a one-of-a-kind resource as no major collections of macroeconomic essays have been published in the last decade Builds upon Volume 1 by using its section headings to illustrate just how far macroeconomic thought has evolved

Advancing The Frontiers Of Monetary Policy

Advancing the Frontiers of Monetary Policy PDF
Author: Tobias Adrian
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484344480
Size: 17.70 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 296
View: 6718

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Inflation-forecast targeting is state of the art for monetary policy. This book explores first principles, including managing short-term policy trade-offs. The book also outlines efficient operational procedures and reviews the experiences of Canada, the Czech Republic, and India. The analysis highlights the need for assertive policies and maximum transparency.

Keep Reforming China S Strategic Economic Transformation

Keep Reforming  China   s Strategic Economic Transformation PDF
Author: Zhong Xu
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 9811580065
Size: 68.99 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 266
View: 6794

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This book is about China’s economy transformation. Currently, China’s macro-leverage ratio has been effectively controlled, the central market interest rate (one year fixed interest rate) has gone down, and liquidity is now relatively abundant. However, financial institutions are generally reluctant to lend, the local governments are unwilling to act, and the fact that liquidity released by the central bank cannot be effectively transmitted to the real economy is leading to a contraction of credit and higher financing costs for private enterprises. Meanwhile, the downturn in the internal economic cycle has been exacerbated by the external shocks caused by frictions in Sino-US trade, and this set of circumstances has contributed to the polarization of expectations regarding China's real economic prospects and policy trends, as seen, for example, in the questions and discussions about policy trends relevant to the private economy. Indeed, one might claim that the current confusion of expectations even exceeds that of 2008, when the international financial crisis breaks out. From a dialectical perspective, the more pessimistic expectation of economic trend, the easier it is to build consensus on reform, and the more remarkable actual effects of reform, which must be based on a comprehensive understanding of the phased characteristics of China’s economic development. In this book, based on the experience working in central bank of China, the author argues that China’s policy should focus on internal demand. In the coming period, China needs to persevere in the market orientation, step up reform and opening up, and create a favorable business environment. This book represents the following opinions: First, to reach a common understanding of the medium and high economic growth, and avoid the dream of high growth. Second, to stick to supply-side structural reform, accelerate economic transformation and structural adjustment, and further unleash the reform dividends and growth potential. The long-term and structural problems cannot be attributed to short-term and cyclical problems. Third, the challenges of external shocks could be also regarded as opportunities, which include but not limited to accelerate reform to improve property rights protection, state-owned capital management, corporate governance, income distribution, and social security. Fourth, whenever the trade friction happens, a multilateral framework is always helpful.