PDF book library free download

Output Gap In Presence Of Financial Frictions And Monetary Policy Trade Offs

Output Gap in Presence of Financial Frictions and Monetary Policy Trade offs PDF
Author: Francesco Furlanetto
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498305326
Size: 22.52 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 44
View: 5640

Get Book


The recent global financial crisis illustrates that financial frictions are a significant source of volatility in the economy. This paper investigates monetary policy stabilization in an environment where financial frictions are a relevant source of macroeconomic fluctuation. We derive a measure of output gap that accounts for frictions in financial market. Furthermore we illustrate that, in the presence of financial frictions, a benevolent central bank faces a substantial trade-off between nominal and real stabilization; optimal monetary policy significantly reduces fluctuations in price and wage inflations but fails to alleviate the output gap volatility. This suggests a role for macroprudential policies.

Output Gap In Presence Of Financial Frictions And Monetary Policy Trade Offs

Output Gap in Presence of Financial Frictions and Monetary Policy Trade offs PDF
Author: Francesco Furlanetto
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498331157
Size: 33.93 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 44
View: 2580

Get Book


The recent global financial crisis illustrates that financial frictions are a significant source of volatility in the economy. This paper investigates monetary policy stabilization in an environment where financial frictions are a relevant source of macroeconomic fluctuation. We derive a measure of output gap that accounts for frictions in financial market. Furthermore we illustrate that, in the presence of financial frictions, a benevolent central bank faces a substantial trade-off between nominal and real stabilization; optimal monetary policy significantly reduces fluctuations in price and wage inflations but fails to alleviate the output gap volatility. This suggests a role for macroprudential policies.

Financial Factors

Financial Factors PDF
Author: Mr.Pau Rabanal
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513512862
Size: 42.10 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 57
View: 2386

Get Book


We suggest a new approach for analyzing the role of financial variables and shocks in computing the output gap. We estimate a two-region DSGE model for the euro area, with financial frictions at the household level, between 2000-2013. After joining the monetary union, a decline in some countries’ borrowing costs contributed to a credit, housing and real boom and bust cycle. We show that financial frictions amplified economic fluctuations and the measure of the output gap in those countries. On the contrary, in countries such as France and Germany, financial frictions played a minor role in output gap measures. We also present evidence of the trade-offs faced by the European Central Bank when trying to stabilize two regions in a currency union with unsynchronized economic cycles.

Beyond Divine Coincidence

Beyond Divine Coincidence PDF
Author: Palek, Jakob
Publisher: kassel university press GmbH
ISBN: 3737600481
Size: 72.51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 110
View: 5950

Get Book


During the so-called Great Moderation the variability of output, employment and inflation declined substantially in most of the major economies. Because of this positive co-movement the ultimate objective of monetary policy was clear. By stabilizing inflation output will also stay at its potential and the central bank does not face any trade-off between its targets – a situation known as the divine coincidence. With the onset of the financial crisis 2007 these relationships changed. This book contributes to the research on the optimal macroeconomic policy design in the presence of financial frictions. These are incorporated via the cost channel approach into a two-country currency union model. Ultimately, a supply-side effect arises which lowers the efficiency of monetary policy - divine coincidence is not possible any more. Three questions are in the focus of interest of this analysis: What is the optimal monetary policy in the presence of country-specific financial frictions? What role can fiscal policy play? Is macroprudential policy able to improve welfare if the central bank targets a financial stability measure?

Interbank Frictions Business Cycle Fluctuations And Monetary Policy Trade Offs

Interbank Frictions  Business Cycle Fluctuations and Monetary Policy Trade offs PDF
Author: Yujung Suh
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780355969320
Size: 12.80 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 4086

Get Book


The Great Recession and consequent slow overall economic recovery have reignited research interests in financial factors in business cycle fluctuations and monetary policy rules. In the recent financial crisis, highly interconnected and leveraged financial institutions through wholesale financial markets have been blamed as the main culprit in exacerbating the initial shock in the financial market. The role of market-based financial institutions in the supply of credit has been expanded in the United States especially before the Great Recession. The market-based institutions have used securitization as one of their important tools to raise funds. Market-based lending and the related securitization process are a part of the shadow banking system, which is broadly defined as ''credit intermediation involving entities and activities (fully or partially) outside the regular banking system'' by the Financial Stability Board. My dissertation investigates the importance of financial factors in the business cycle fluctuations and monetary policy rules. The first chapter explores the role of interbank friction shocks in accounting for the business cycle fluctuations. I augment financial intermediation of Gertler and Kiyotaki (2011) with an otherwise standard New Keynesian DSGE model with nominal rigidities in wages and prices. I then fit the model to US data, using two new financial variables (interbank loans and the net worth of banks) in the literature and allowing the interbank frictions to vary over time following exogenous shocks to these frictions. According to the Bayesian estimation of the model, shocks to interbank frictions are important factors in explaining the fluctuations of the economy, accounting for 7% of the output fluctuations, 11% of the investment fluctuations, 53% of the fluctuations in the premium and 8% of the fluctuations in interbank loans. Analyses of historical decompositions show that interbank frictions shock plays an important role in the movement of key macro variables early in the downturn of the recent financial crisis. In the second chapter, I evaluate the effect of financial frictions and shocks on monetary policy. The identification method of Justiniano, Primiceri and Tambalotti (2011) is adopted to tackle the criticism on the identification between labor supply shocks and wage markup shocks by Chari, Kehoe and McGrattan (2009). The model is re-estimated with more data series on nominal wage inflation and the output gap, defined as the difference between the actual output and potential out, is derived. The output gap is estimated to be large and displays low-frequency movements under Taylor-rule type monetary policy. Estimated shocks including interbank friction shocks then are fed into the model under Ramsey optimal monetary policy to evaluate the impact of financial shocks on the evolution of the economy and the counterfactual simulation on the evolution of the economy is conducted. The counterfactuals show that, unlike the volatile movements of output gap under Taylor-rule type monetary policy, the output gap is more stabilized and the trade-offs between conflicting policy objectives are moderate if monetary policy is conducted optimally. The last chapter explores the possibility of regime shifts in the financial frictions and the volatility of shocks to financial frictions. The preliminary estimation results on the regime-switching DSGE model show that the regime has switched between low friction and high friction regimes. At this sage, the results are mostly preliminary since the numerical optimization may stop at a local but not global maximum of the posterior distribution due to the possibility that the objective function is flat or multimodal with shifts in regimes. More through results will be obtained by gradient-free global optimization methods. The artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm and the differential evolution algorithm are now employed to estimate the regime-switching DSGE model in the last chapter.

Asset Prices And Monetary Policy

Asset Prices and Monetary Policy PDF
Author: Ichiro Fukunaga
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 48.76 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Assets (Accounting)
Languages : en
Pages : 35
View: 2999

Get Book


How should central banks take into account movements in asset prices in the conduct of monetary policy? We provide an analysis to address this issue using a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model incorporating both price rigidities and financial market imperfections. Our findings are twofold. First, in the presence of these two sources of distortion in the economy, central banks face a policy tradeoff between stabilizing inflation and the output gap. With this tradeoff, central banks could strike a better balance between both objectives if they took variables other than inflation, such as asset prices, into consideration. Second, these benefits decrease when central banks rely on limited information about the underlying sources of asset price movements and cannot judge which part of the observed asset price movements reflects inefficiencies in the economy.--Author's abstract.

Systemic Risk

Systemic Risk PDF
Author: Stefan Laseen
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513571214
Size: 60.53 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 46
View: 5427

Get Book


We introduce time-varying systemic risk in an otherwise standard New-Keynesian model to study whether a simple leaning-against-the-wind policy can reduce systemic risk and improve welfare. We find that an unexpected increase in policy rates reduces output, inflation, and asset prices without fundamentally mitigating financial risks. We also find that while a systematic monetary policy reaction can improve welfare, it is too simplistic: (1) it is highly sensitive to parameters of the model and (2) is detrimental in the presence of falling asset prices. Macroprudential policy, similar to a countercyclical capital requirement, is more robust and leads to higher welfare gains.

Leaning Against Windy Bank Lending

Leaning Against Windy Bank Lending PDF
Author: Mr.Giovanni Melina
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 148431445X
Size: 36.46 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 68
View: 5316

Get Book


Using an estimated dynamic stochastic general equilibrium model with banking, this paper first provides evidence that monetary policy reacted to bank loan growth in the US during the Great Moderation. It then shows that the optimized simple interest-rate rule features no response to the growth of bank credit. However, the welfare loss associated to the empirical responsiveness is small. The sources of business cycle fluctuations are crucial in determining whether a “leaning-against-the-wind” policy is optimal or not. In fact, the predominant role of supply shocks in the model gives rise to a trade-off between inflation and financial stabilization.

Unconventional Policy Instruments In The New Keynesian Model

Unconventional Policy Instruments in the New Keynesian Model PDF
Author: Zineddine Alla
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513573071
Size: 75.41 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 34
View: 1792

Get Book


This paper analyzes the use of unconventional policy instruments in New Keynesian setups in which the ‘divine coincidence’ breaks down. The paper discusses the role of a second instrument and its coordination with conventional interest rate policy, and presents theoretical results on equilibrium determinacy, the inflation bias, the stabilization bias, and the optimal central banker’s preferences when both instruments are available. We show that the use of an unconventional instrument can help reduce the zone of equilibrium indeterminacy and the volatility of the economy. However, in some circumstances, committing not to use the second instrument may be welfare improving (a result akin to Rogoff (1985a) example of counterproductive coordination). We further show that the optimal central banker should be both aggressive against inflation, and interventionist in using the unconventional policy instrument. As long as price setting depends on expectations about the future, there are gains from establishing credibility by using any instrument that affects these expectations.

Research Bulletin March 2015

Research Bulletin  March 2015 PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 147555138X
Size: 48.27 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 16
View: 2194

Get Book


Articles in the March 2015 Research Bulletin focus on the oil market, energy subsidies, and output. The Research Summary on "An Exploration in Deep Corners of the Oil Market," authored by Rabah Arezki, Douglas Laxton, Armen Nurekyan, and Hou Wang, examines fluctuations in oil prices. "The State Budget May Afford It All," by Christian Ebeke and Constant Lonkeng Ngbouana, reviews energy subsidies and their fiscal, distributional, and environmental costs. In the “Q&A” column Pau Rabanal takes a look at “Seven Questions on Potential Output.” The Bulletin includes a listing of recent IMF Working Papers, Staff Discussion Notes, recommended readings from IMF Publications, and a call for papers for the next Annual Research Conference. A link with information and free access to IMF Economic Review is also included.

Russian Federation

Russian Federation PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484308204
Size: 23.55 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 94
View: 7533

Get Book


This paper focuses on the task that may be more complicated when the adjustment in relative prices is driven by a negative terms of trade (ToT) shock. Two sets of factors are explored: disruptiveness of sudden terms-of-trade driven devaluations and issues related to external demand and access to external markets. The argument that a reduction in commodity prices will unwind the Dutch disease assumes symmetry: since increasing commodity prices drove resources out of the non-commodity tradable sector, decreasing commodity prices and ensuing real depreciation should bring resources back into the nontradable sector. Effectively, this implies that the magnitude of the elasticity of non-commodity exports to the real effective exchange rate (REER) is equal regardless of the direction of the REER movement, and is not affected by the phase of the commodity cycle. Deep linkages between the commodity and non-commodity sectors can prevent the non-commodity tradable sector from taking advance of the depreciation caused by a commodity price shock because such depreciation puts under stress the entire economy.

Steady As She Goes Estimating Potential Output During Financial Booms And Busts

Steady as She Goes   Estimating Potential Output During Financial    Booms and Busts    PDF
Author: Mr.Helge Berger
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513503073
Size: 36.54 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 33
View: 3496

Get Book


Potential output—in the sense of the GDP level or path an economy can sustain over the medium term—is a crucial benchmark for policymakers. However, it is difficult to estimate when financial “booms and busts” are driving the real economy. This paper uses a simple multivariate filtering approach to illustrate the role financial variables play in driving potential or sustainable output. The results suggest that it moves more steadily during financial “boom and bust” periods than implied by conventional HP filter estimates, which tend to more closely follow actual GDP. A two-region, multisector New Keynesian DSGE model with financial frictions sheds light on the economic forces that could be behind the results obtained from the filter. This has important implications for policymakers.

Imf Research Bulletin September 2014

IMF Research Bulletin  September 2014 PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. Research Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498333168
Size: 21.58 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 18
View: 5055

Get Book


This issue of the IMF Research Bulletin opens with a letter from the new editor, Rabah Arezki. The Research Summaries are a "Primer on 'Global Liquidity'" (Eugenio Cerutti, Stijn Claessens, and Lev Ratnovski); and "Trade Integration adn Business Cycle Synchronization" (Kevin Cheng, Romain Duval, and Dulani Senevirante). The Q&A column looks at "Seven Questions on the Global Housing Markets" (Hites Ahir, Heedon Kang, and Prakash Loungani). September 2014 issue of the Bulletin also includes updates on IMF Working Papers, Staff Discussion Notes, and Recommended Readings from the IMF Bookstore, as well as special announcements on new staff publications and the Fifteenth Annual Jacques Polak Research Conference. Also included is information on the latest issue of “IMF Economic Review” with a link to an article by Paul Krugman.

Unconventional Policy Instruments In The New Keynesian Model

Unconventional Policy Instruments in the New Keynesian Model PDF
Author: Zineddine Alla
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513573039
Size: 57.15 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 34
View: 3716

Get Book


This paper analyzes the use of unconventional policy instruments in New Keynesian setups in which the ‘divine coincidence’ breaks down. The paper discusses the role of a second instrument and its coordination with conventional interest rate policy, and presents theoretical results on equilibrium determinacy, the inflation bias, the stabilization bias, and the optimal central banker’s preferences when both instruments are available. We show that the use of an unconventional instrument can help reduce the zone of equilibrium indeterminacy and the volatility of the economy. However, in some circumstances, committing not to use the second instrument may be welfare improving (a result akin to Rogoff (1985a) example of counterproductive coordination). We further show that the optimal central banker should be both aggressive against inflation, and interventionist in using the unconventional policy instrument. As long as price setting depends on expectations about the future, there are gains from establishing credibility by using any instrument that affects these expectations.

Systemic Risk

Systemic Risk PDF
Author: Stefan Laseen
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 151357924X
Size: 27.53 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 46
View: 3771

Get Book


We introduce time-varying systemic risk in an otherwise standard New-Keynesian model to study whether a simple leaning-against-the-wind policy can reduce systemic risk and improve welfare. We find that an unexpected increase in policy rates reduces output, inflation, and asset prices without fundamentally mitigating financial risks. We also find that while a systematic monetary policy reaction can improve welfare, it is too simplistic: (1) it is highly sensitive to parameters of the model and (2) is detrimental in the presence of falling asset prices. Macroprudential policy, similar to a countercyclical capital requirement, is more robust and leads to higher welfare gains.

Monetary Policy In Low Financial Development Countries

Monetary Policy in Low Financial Development Countries PDF
Author: Juan Antonio Morales
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192597027
Size: 70.60 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 360
View: 1058

Get Book


Monetary Policy in Low Financial Development Countries provides a broad coverage of the monetary policy issues faced by developing countries with low financial depth. These low and lower middle income countries are characterized by the predominance of bank finance, shallow financial markets, low financial inclusion, weak integration with world capital markets, and a high degree of informality in economic activity. Monetary policy acquires special twists, making it different in many aspects from the policies followed in advanced and emerging market economies. This book covers the main facets of monetary policy making, using an approach that combines discussions of theoretical arguments, of results from empirical studies and of relevant policy experiences. It presents the monetary policy instruments that central banks rely on in these countries. It assesses the specificities of their monetary transmission mechanism, i.e. the way central banks' actions affect output and prices. It evaluates the advantages, drawbacks, and challenges of the different nominal anchors they may choose from: exchange rate targeting, monetary targeting, and inflation targeting. This discussion is set against the background of the three main goals pursued by central banks: price, output, and financial stability. Particular attention is devoted to the issue of the credibility of central banks and to the trade-offs they face when external shocks, to which these countries are very vulnerable, lead to conflicts among the three goals they pursue. The authors also cover more specific topics, such as the coordination between monetary and fiscal policy, the challenges raised by dollarization, the implications of informal labour markets and of microfinance institutions for monetary policy-making, as well as the role of models for forecasting and policy evaluation by central banks.

Monetary Policy Over Fifty Years

Monetary Policy Over Fifty Years PDF
Author: Heinz Herrmann
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113402083X
Size: 58.98 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 164
View: 1199

Get Book


This book is based on a conference celebrating the 50th anniversary of the Deutsche Bundesbank. Since the 1950s, there have been fundamental changes in the monetary order and financial systems, in our understanding of the effects of monetary policy, the best goals for central banks and the appropriate institutional setting of central banks. Prominent monetary economists and central bankers give their views on the most significant developments during this period and the lessons we should draw from them. The book contains four sections on central issues. The first part discusses the main successes and failures of monetary policy since the 1950s. The second part asks what economists have learned about monetary policy over the past 50 years. It gives an overview on experiences with various monetary strategies, focusing in particular on monetary targeting and its problems, on inflation targeting and why it was successful and the institutional framework for monetary policy. The next section outlines the progress that monetary economists have made since the Bundesbank was founded and discusses the extent to which central banks can rely on "scientific" principles. The final part describes the interaction between monetary policy, fiscal policy and labour markets. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the main challenges faced by central bankers in the past and how and to what extent monetary economics have been helpful in tackling them. It outlines our current knowledge about the effects of monetary policy and the appropriate institutional framework for central banks and raises some open questions for the future. It will be of great interest to monetary economists, central bankers and economic historians.

Managing Global Growth Risks And Commodity Price Shocks Vulnerabilities And Policy Challenges For Low Income Countries

Managing Global Growth Risks and Commodity Price Shocks   Vulnerabilities and Policy Challenges for Low Income Countries PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. Strategy, Policy, & Review Department
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1498338453
Size: 80.88 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 62
View: 3944

Get Book


As part of its work to help low-income countries (LICs) manage volatility, the IMF has recently developed an analytical framework to assess vulnerabilities and emerging risks that arise from changes in the external environment (see IMF, 2011a). This report draws on the results of the first Vulnerability Exercise for LICs (VE-LIC) conducted by IMF staff using this new framework. The report focuses on the risks of a downturn in global growth and of further global commodity price shocks, and discusses related policy challenges. The report is organized as follows: Chapter I reviews recent macroeconomic developments, including the spike in global commodity prices earlier this year. Chapter II assesses current risks and vulnerabilities, including how a sharp downturn in global growth and further commodity price shocks would affect LICs. Chapter III discusses policy challenges in the face of these risks and vulnerabilities.

The Asean Way

The ASEAN Way PDF
Author: Ms.Ana Corbacho
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1513558900
Size: 67.78 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 311
View: 2664

Get Book


The first part of the book examines the evolution of monetary policy and prudential frameworks of the ASEAN5, with particular focus on changes since the Asian financial crisis and the more recent period of unconventional monetary policy in advanced economies. The second part of the book looks at policy responses to global financial spillovers. The third and last part of the book elaborates on the challenges ahead for monetary policy, financial stability frameworks, and the deepening of financial markets.