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The Pathogenesis Of Atherosclerosis

The Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis PDF
Author: Robert William Wissler
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISBN:
Size: 43.25 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Arteriosclerosis
Languages : en
Pages : 262
View: 3105

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Pathogenesis Of Atherosclerosis

Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis PDF
Author: A. Wayne Orr
Publisher: Biota Publishing
ISBN: 1615046577
Size: 26.72 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 125
View: 6920

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The circulatory system provides the tissues of the body with oxygen and nutrients for survival, allows for the dissemination of inflammatory cells, and clears metabolic waste from building up and damaging tissue. Atherosclerotic disease, the build-up of fat, inflammatory cells, and fibrotic tissue in the vessel wall, hinders this function, resulting in inadequate perfusion of the target tissue. Hypoxia, or lack of oxygen, rapidly results in cellular dysfunction that profoundly affects the functionality of the overall tissue. Atherosclerosis-associated tissue ischemia and hypoxia because of loss of blood flow underlies several significant disease pathologies including ischemic heart disease, stroke, and peripheral artery disease. In this eBook, we examine the process of atherosclerotic plaque formation both at the cellular level and the level of clinical presentation. Through this book, we hope to impart to the reader a better understanding of how vessel structure, environmental risk factors, and genetic predisposition contribute to atherosclerotic disease and how current and future therapies seek to circumvent the cellular processes contributing to plaque formation to reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden and clinical complications. Table of Contents: List of Videos / Introduction to Atherosclerosis / Epidemiology / Endothelial Cell Activation and Arterial Hemodynamics / Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Disease / Inflammation in Atherosclerosis / Smooth Muscle Cells and Plaque Vulnerability / Diagnosing Atherosclerotic Disease / Treatment and Prevention / Summary and Future Perspectives / References / Author Biographies

Atherosclerosis Pathogenesis And Microvascular Dysfunction

Atherosclerosis Pathogenesis and Microvascular Dysfunction PDF
Author: Axel Haverich
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030202453
Size: 14.14 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 130
View: 5444

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This book provides new perspectives on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chapters cover atherosclerosis risk factors, the effect of growth and aging on vascular architecture, and the crucial role the microvasculature plays in atherosclerosis development. Microvascular dysfunction would explain why the well-known risk factors actually put individuals at higher risk. This pathomechanism would also hold true not only for obstructive atheroma formation but also for aneurysmal dilatation as well as for aortic and peripheral artery dissection. When seen through this lens, novel preventive and therapeutic opportunities can be envisioned. Atherosclerosis Pathogenesis and Microvascular Dysfunction proposes a single unifying mechanism of atherosclerosis development and describes potential preventative and therapeutic avenues based on this concept. It therefore represents a timely and valuable resource for internal medicine, cardiology, angiology cardiovascular surgeons, pathology clinicians, researchers, trainees, and students.

Tobacco Smoking And Atherosclerosis

Tobacco Smoking and Atherosclerosis PDF
Author: John N. Diana
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468458299
Size: 56.85 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 404
View: 1388

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Atherosclerosis is the principal underlying cause of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in people of the Western world. Cigarette smoking has been implicated in both the initiation and exacerbation of the atherosclerotic process. Data to support this implication derives primarily from epidemiologic studies where the relationship between the incidence of atherosclerosis in people who smoke cigarettes has been shown to have a strong correlation. There are few well established explanations for this phenomenon, and basic molecular, biochemical, and cellular mechanisms associated with smoking and the development of atherosclerosis remain both undefined and virtually unexplored. Even the epidemiologic correlation between cigarette smoking and the development of atherosclerosis needs further critical studies. It is known that individuals who do not smoke cigarettes develop athero sclerosis and it is also known that in people who smoke but have normal or low blood cholesterol/lipoprotein levels, the incidence of development of atherosclerosis is no different from that which is found in a non smoking population. Answers which explain such observations must address fundamental biological mechanisms. Toward this end, the purpose of this volume is to assemble, in a single publication, information which will address the questions; what basic cellular and/or molecular mechanisms are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and how does cigarette smoking influence such mechanisms to initiate or exacerbate the atherosclerotic process? Clearly, the development of atherosclerosis is a complex, multifactorial biological event.

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis PDF
Author: Sergey Fedoroff
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461537541
Size: 48.16 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 278
View: 3311

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This volume contains the papers which were presented at the First Altschul Symposium, Atherosclerosis: Cellular and Molecular Interactions in the Artery Wall. The symposium was held in Saskatoon, at the University of Saskatchewan in May 1990 in memory of Dr. Rudolph Altschul, a pioneer in the field of vascular biology and the prevention of atherosclerosis. Dr. Altschul was Professor and Head of the Department of Anatomy at the University of Saskatchewan from 1955 to 1963. The challenge for biomedical scientists is to unravel the multifactorial etiology of atherosclerosis. For the last hundred and sixty years, anatomical pathologists have carefully studied the morphological changes of the human vascular wall during the initiation and evolution of the fibrofatty atherosclerotic plaque. Based on these elegant morphological observations, theories on atherogenesis were put forth by pathologists in the 1840's. Rudolf Virchow suggested that the movement of substances from the blood into the vessel wall was important for atherogenesis while Carl von Rokitansky felt that the deposition of substances on the lumenal surface of the artery resulted in the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. Since these original theories, it has become apparent that the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is multifactorial and the disease evolves in stages. It is also likely that not all plaques arise through the same sequence of events and that many steps are involved in the development of each plaque. Today, our understanding of the complicated processes of atherogenesis is still incomplete.

Lipoproteins And The Pathogenesis Of Atherosclerosis

Lipoproteins and the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis PDF
Author: James Shepherd
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 32.61 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 191
View: 2965

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Lipoprotein disorders are among the most common metabolic derangements encountered in industrialised countries. Figures for the United States of America, for example, reveal that more than half of the adult population have too high plasma cholesterol levels. It is not surprising that ischaemic heart disease remains the commonest cause of death in the western world. This volume focuses on the origin of the problem by exploring the factors which govern the structure and metabolism of human plasma lipoproteins and those which regulate lipoprotein interaction with the developing atherosclerotic lesion. Secondly, recent advances in the pharmaceutical industry have led to the development of powerful and effective new lipid lowering drugs. The practising physician needs to know when to use these agents and what to expect of them. This topic is examined in some detail to provide a basis for rational lipid lowering pharmacotherapy if dietary intervention fails. The implementation of effective intervention programs offers the prospect of reducing the impact of heart disease and improving the quality and expectation of life in the community.

The Healing And Scarring Of Atheroma

The Healing and Scarring of Atheroma PDF
Author: M. Wolman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1468446460
Size: 37.57 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 156
View: 6146

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The study of atherosclerosis centered since the first decade of the present century on etiology and pathogenesis. In fact, the studies of the military academy of medicine in St. Petersburg have opened the way of inducing atherosclerosis in animals. Pathogenesis of atheroma has been studied since then in humans and animals naturally prone to the development of the disease and by a variety of dietary and other procedures. The various experimental studies allowed science to evaluate the relative importance of different factors (genetic, dietary, hormonal, pharmacological. mechanical, circulatory, etc.) in atherogenesis. Epidemiological studies as well as biochemical plasma lipid and lipoprotein estimations coupled with light microscopic, histo chemical and electron microscopic investigations decreased the gap between observations on the human and experimental animal research. The enormous literature covering this field allows the intelligent reader to formulate a comprehensive concept regarding etiological factors and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Its impact on pre ventive and curative medicine was however limited in scope.

Inflammatory And Infectious Basis Of Atherosclerosis

Inflammatory and Infectious Basis of Atherosclerosis PDF
Author: Jay L. Mehta
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 3034882394
Size: 26.54 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 263
View: 276

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In the last ten years, major strides have been made in defining the presence and role of inflammation in atherosclerosis as well as in injury to the tissues that occurs after episodes of ischemia and reperfusion. In sixteen chapters, written by world-renowned individuals from different countries, the role of inflammation and different mediators in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is presented. The significance of inflammation and possible therapeutic implications is also described in depth. This book is of great interest for a wide range of physicians, researchers, and scientists who may want to study more and develop the concept of inflammation and atherosclerosis.

Calponin And Cytoskeleton Dynamics In Macrophage Functions And The Pathogenesis Of Atherosclerosis

Calponin and Cytoskeleton Dynamics in Macrophage Functions and the Pathogenesis of Atherosclerosis PDF
Author: Rong Liu
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 17.86 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Physiology
Languages : en
Pages : 137
View: 6210

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Arterial atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. Macrophages play a major role in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerotic lesions. Modulation of macrophage function is a therapeutic target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Calponin is an actin-filament-associated regulatory protein that inhibits the activity of myosin-ATPase and dynamics of the actin cytoskeleton. Encoded by the Cnn2 gene, calponin isoform 2 is expressed at significant levels in macrophages. Deletion of calponin 2 increases macrophage migration and phagocytosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of deletion of calponin 2 in macrophages on the pathogenesis and development of atherosclerosis. The results showed that macrophages isolated from Cnn2 knockout mice ingested the same level of acetylated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) as that of wild type (WT) macrophages but the resulting foam cells had significantly less impaired velocity of migration. Systemic or myeloid cell-specific Cnn2 knockouts effectively attenuated the development of arterial atherosclerosis lesions with less macrophage infiltration in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Consistently, calponin 2-null macrophages produced less pro-inflammatory cytokines than that of WT macrophages, and the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in foam cells was also attenuated by the deletion of calponin 2. Calponin 2-null macrophages and foam cells have significantly weakened cell adhesion, indicating a role of cytoskeleton regulation in macrophage functions and inflammatory responses, and a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of arterial atherosclerosis.