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Ramsey Theory

Ramsey Theory PDF
Author: Ronald L. Graham
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780471500469
Size: 36.27 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 208
View: 7369

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Praise for the First Edition "Anyone interested in getting an introduction to Ramsey theorywill find this illuminating..." --MAA Reviews Covering all the major concepts, proofs, and theorems, theSecond Edition of Ramsey Theory is the ultimate guideto understanding every aspect of Shelah's proof, as well asthe original proof of van der Waerden. The book offers a historicalperspective of Ramsey's fundamental paper from 1930 andErdos' and Szekeres' article from 1935, while placingthe various theorems in the context of T. S. Motzkin'sthought on the subject of "Complete Disorder isImpossible." Ramsey Theory, Second Edition includes new and excitingcoverage of Graph Ramsey Theory and Euclidean Ramsey Theory andalso relates Ramsey Theory to other areas in discrete mathematics.In addition, the book features the unprovability results of Parisand Harrington and the methods from topological dynamics pioneeredby Furstenburg. Featuring worked proofs and outside applications, RamseyTheory, Second Edition addresses: * Ramsey and density theorems on both broad and meticulousscales * Extentions and implications of van der Waerden's Theorem,the Hales-Jewett Theorem, Roth's Theorem, Rado'sTheorem, Szemeredi's Theorem, and the Shelah Proof * Regular homogeneous and nonhomogeneous systems andequations * Special cases and broader interdisciplinary applications ofRamsey Theory principles An invaluable reference for professional mathematicians workingin discrete mathematics, combinatorics, and algorithms, RamseyTheory, Second Edition is the definitive work on thesubject.

Mathematics Of Ramsey Theory

Mathematics of Ramsey Theory PDF
Author: Jaroslav Nesetril
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642729053
Size: 10.64 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 269
View: 1690

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One of the important areas of contemporary combinatorics is Ramsey theory. Ramsey theory is basically the study of structure preserved under partitions. The general philosophy is reflected by its interdisciplinary character. The ideas of Ramsey theory are shared by logicians, set theorists and combinatorists, and have been successfully applied in other branches of mathematics. The whole subject is quickly developing and has some new and unexpected applications in areas as remote as functional analysis and theoretical computer science. This book is a homogeneous collection of research and survey articles by leading specialists. It surveys recent activity in this diverse subject and brings the reader up to the boundary of present knowledge. It covers virtually all main approaches to the subject and suggests various problems for individual research.

Ramsey Theory

Ramsey Theory PDF
Author: Alexander Soifer
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 9780817680916
Size: 39.53 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 190
View: 136

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This book explores the theory’s history, recent developments, and some promising future directions through invited surveys written by prominent researchers in the field. The first three surveys provide historical background on the subject; the last three address Euclidean Ramsey theory and related coloring problems. In addition, open problems posed throughout the volume and in the concluding open problem chapter will appeal to graduate students and mathematicians alike.

Ramsey Theory

Ramsey Theory PDF
Author: Xiaodong Xu
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110576708
Size: 63.83 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 190
View: 5961

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Key problems and conjectures have played an important role in promoting the development of Ramsey theory, a field where great progress has been made during the past two decades, with some old problems solved and many new problems proposed. The present book will be helpful to readers who wish to learn about interesting problems in Ramsey theory, to see how they are interconnected, and then to study them in depth. This book is the first problem book of such scope in Ramsey theory. Many unsolved problems, conjectures and related partial results in Ramsey theory are presented, in areas such as extremal graph theory, additive number theory, discrete geometry, functional analysis, algorithm design, and in other areas. Most presented problems are easy to understand, but they may be difficult to solve. They can be appreciated on many levels and by a wide readership, ranging from undergraduate students majoring in mathematics to research mathematicians. This collection is an essential reference for mathematicians working in combinatorics and number theory, as well as for computer scientists studying algorithms. Contents Some definitions and notations Ramsey theory Bi-color diagonal classical Ramsey numbers Paley graphs and lower bounds for R(k, k) Bi-color off-diagonal classical Ramsey numbers Multicolor classical Ramsey numbers Generalized Ramsey numbers Folkman numbers The Erdős–Hajnal conjecture Other Ramsey-type problems in graph theory On van der Waerden numbers and Szemeredi’s theorem More problems of Ramsey type in additive number theory Sidon–Ramsey numbers Games in Ramsey theory Local Ramsey theory Set-coloring Ramsey theory Other problems and conjectures

Ramsey Theory For Discrete Structures

Ramsey Theory for Discrete Structures PDF
Author: Hans Jürgen Prömel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319013157
Size: 36.33 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 232
View: 1028

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This monograph covers some of the most important developments in Ramsey theory from its beginnings in the early 20th century via its many breakthroughs to recent important developments in the early 21st century. The book first presents a detailed discussion of the roots of Ramsey theory before offering a thorough discussion of the role of parameter sets. It presents several examples of structures that can be interpreted in terms of parameter sets and features the most fundamental Ramsey-type results for parameter sets: Hales-Jewett's theorem and Graham-Rothschild1s Ramsey theorem as well as their canonical versions and several applications. Next, the book steps back to the most basic structure, to sets. It reviews classic results as well as recent progress on Ramsey numbers and the asymptotic behavior of classical Ramsey functions. In addition, it presents product versions of Ramsey's theorem, a combinatorial proof of the incompleteness of Peano arithmetic, provides a digression to discrepancy theory and examines extensions of Ramsey's theorem to larger cardinals. The next part of the book features an in-depth treatment of the Ramsey problem for graphs and hypergraphs. It gives an account on the existence of sparse and restricted Ramsey theorem's using sophisticated constructions as well as probabilistic methods. Among others it contains a proof of the induced Graham-Rothschild theorem and the random Ramsey theorem. The book closes with a chapter on one of the recent highlights of Ramsey theory: a combinatorial proof of the density Hales-Jewett theorem. This book provides graduate students as well as advanced researchers with a solid introduction and reference to the field.

Fundamentals Of Ramsey Theory

Fundamentals of Ramsey Theory PDF
Author: Aaron Robertson
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0429775911
Size: 14.78 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 255
View: 2507

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Ramsey theory is a fascinating topic. The author shares his view of the topic in this contemporary overview of Ramsey theory. He presents from several points of view, adding intuition and detailed proofs, in an accessible manner unique among most books on the topic. This book covers all of the main results in Ramsey theory along with results that have not appeared in a book before. The presentation is comprehensive and reader friendly. The book covers integer, graph, and Euclidean Ramsey theory with many proofs being combinatorial in nature. The author motivates topics and discussion, rather than just a list of theorems and proofs. In order to engage the reader, each chapter has a section of exercises. This up-to-date book introduces the field of Ramsey theory from several different viewpoints so that the reader can decide which flavor of Ramsey theory best suits them. Additionally, the book offers: A chapter providing different approaches to Ramsey theory, e.g., using topological dynamics, ergodic systems, and algebra in the Stone-Čech compactification of the integers. A chapter on the probabilistic method since it is quite central to Ramsey-type numbers. A unique chapter presenting some applications of Ramsey theory. Exercises in every chapter The intended audience consists of students and mathematicians desiring to learn about Ramsey theory. An undergraduate degree in mathematics (or its equivalent for advanced undergraduates) and a combinatorics course is assumed. TABLE OF CONENTS Preface List of Figures List of Tables Symbols 1. Introduction 2. Integer Ramsey Theory 3. Graph Ramsey Theory 4. Euclidean Ramsey Theory 5. Other Approaches to Ramsey Theory 6. The Probabilistic Method 7. Applications Bibliography Index Biography Aaron Robertson received his Ph.D. in mathematics from Temple University under the guidance of his advisor Doron Zeilberger. Upon finishing his Ph.D. he started at Colgate University in upstate New York where he is currently Professor of Mathematics. He also serves as Associate Managing editor of the journal Integers. After a brief detour into the world of permutation patterns, he has focused most of his research on Ramsey theory.

Ramsey Theory

Ramsey Theory PDF
Author: Alexander Soifer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780817680923
Size: 27.62 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 190
View: 859

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This book explores the theory’s history, recent developments, and some promising future directions through invited surveys written by prominent researchers in the field. The first three surveys provide historical background on the subject; the last three address Euclidean Ramsey theory and related coloring problems. In addition, open problems posed throughout the volume and in the concluding open problem chapter will appeal to graduate students and mathematicians alike.

Rudiments Of Ramsey Theory

Rudiments of Ramsey Theory PDF
Author: Ron Graham
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821841564
Size: 16.24 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Combinatorial analysis
Languages : en
Pages : 82
View: 3444

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In every sufficiently large structure which has been partitioned there will always be some well-behaved structure in one of the parts. This takes many forms. For example, colorings of the integers by finitely many colors must have long monochromatic arithmetic progressions (van der Waerden's theorem); and colorings of the edges of large graphs must have monochromatic subgraphs of a specified type (Ramsey's theorem). This book explores many of the basic results and variations of this theory. Since the first edition of this book there have been many advances in this field. In the second edition the authors update the exposition to reflect the current state of the art. They also include many pointers to modern results. A co-publication of the AMS and CBMS.

An Introduction To Ramsey Theory Fast Functions Infinity And Metamathematics

An Introduction to Ramsey Theory  Fast Functions  Infinity  and Metamathematics PDF
Author: Matthew Katz
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470442906
Size: 55.92 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Combinatorial analysis
Languages : en
Pages : 207
View: 4170

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This book takes the reader on a journey through Ramsey theory, from graph theory and combinatorics to set theory to logic and metamathematics. Written in an informal style with few requisites, it develops two basic principles of Ramsey theory: many combinatorial properties persist under partitions, but to witness this persistence, one has to start with very large objects. The interplay between those two principles not only produces beautiful theorems but also touches the very foundations of mathematics. In the course of this book, the reader will learn about both aspects. Among the topics explored are Ramsey's theorem for graphs and hypergraphs, van der Waerden's theorem on arithmetic progressions, infinite ordinals and cardinals, fast growing functions, logic and provability, Gödel incompleteness, and the Paris-Harrington theorem. Quoting from the book, “There seems to be a murky abyss lurking at the bottom of mathematics. While in many ways we cannot hope to reach solid ground, mathematicians have built impressive ladders that let us explore the depths of this abyss and marvel at the limits and at the power of mathematical reasoning at the same time. Ramsey theory is one of those ladders.”

Rudiments Of Ramsey Theory

Rudiments of Ramsey Theory PDF
Author: Ronald L. Graham
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821816969
Size: 40.37 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 65
View: 3231

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It is no exaggeration to say that over the past several decades there has been a veritable explosion of activity in the general field of combinatorics. Ramsey theory, in particular, has shown remarkable growth. This book gives a picture of the state of the art of Ramsey theory at the time of Graham's CBMS lectures. In keeping with the style of the lectures, the exposition is informal. However, complete proofs are given for most of the basic results presented. In addition, many useful results may be found in the exercises and problems. Loosely speaking, Ramsey theory is the branch of combinatorics that deals with structures that are preserved under partitions. Typically, one looks at the following kind of question: If a particular structure (e.g., algebraic, combinatorial or geometric) is arbitrarily partitioned into finitely many classes, what kinds of substructures must always remain intact in at least one of the classes? At the time of these lectures, a number of spectacular advances had been made in the field of Ramsey theory. These include: the work of Szemeredi and Furstenberg settling the venerable conjecture of Erdos and Turan, the Nesetril-Rodl theorems on induced Ramsey properties, the results of Paris and Harrington on ``large'' Ramsey numbers and undecidability in first-order Peano arithmetic, Deuber's solution to the old partition regularity conjecture of Rado, Hindman's surprising generalization of Schur's theorem, and the resolution of Rota's conjecture on Ramsey's theorem for vector spaces by Graham, Leeb and Rothschild. It has also become apparent that the ideas and techniques of Ramsey theory span a rather broad range of mathematical areas, interacting in essential ways with parts of set theory, graph theory, combinatorial number theory, probability theory, analysis and even theoretical computer science. These lecture notes lay out the foundation on which much of this work is based. Relatively little specialized mathematical background is required for this book. It should be accessible to upper division students.

Ramsey Theory On The Integers

Ramsey Theory on the Integers PDF
Author: Bruce M. Landman
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821898671
Size: 45.86 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 384
View: 4613

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Ramsey theory is the study of the structure of mathematical objects that is preserved under partitions. In its full generality, Ramsey theory is quite powerful, but can quickly become complicated. By limiting the focus of this book to Ramsey theory applied to the set of integers, the authors have produced a gentle, but meaningful, introduction to an important and enticing branch of modern mathematics. Ramsey Theory on the Integers offers students a glimpse into the world of mathematical research and the opportunity for them to begin pondering unsolved problems. For this new edition, several sections have been added and others have been significantly updated. Among the newly introduced topics are: rainbow Ramsey theory, an "inequality" version of Schur's theorem, monochromatic solutions of recurrence relations, Ramsey results involving both sums and products, monochromatic sets avoiding certain differences, Ramsey properties for polynomial progressions, generalizations of the Erdős-Ginzberg-Ziv theorem, and the number of arithmetic progressions under arbitrary colorings. Many new results and proofs have been added, most of which were not known when the first edition was published. Furthermore, the book's tables, exercises, lists of open research problems, and bibliography have all been significantly updated. This innovative book also provides the first cohesive study of Ramsey theory on the integers. It contains perhaps the most substantial account of solved and unsolved problems in this blossoming subject. This breakthrough book will engage students, teachers, and researchers alike.

Ramsey Theory For Product Spaces

Ramsey Theory for Product Spaces PDF
Author: Pandelis Dodos
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 1470428083
Size: 64.28 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Combinatorial analysis
Languages : en
Pages : 245
View: 7414

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Ramsey theory is a dynamic area of combinatorics that has various applications in analysis, ergodic theory, logic, number theory, probability theory, theoretical computer science, and topological dynamics. This book is devoted to one of the most important areas of Ramsey theory—the Ramsey theory of product spaces. It is a culmination of a series of recent breakthroughs by the two authors and their students who were able to lift this theory to the infinite-dimensional case. The book presents many major results and methods in the area, such as Szemerédi's regularity method, the hypergraph removal lemma, and the density Hales–Jewett theorem. This book addresses researchers in combinatorics but also working mathematicians and advanced graduate students who are interested in Ramsey theory. The prerequisites for reading this book are rather minimal: it only requires familiarity, at the graduate level, with probability theory and real analysis. Some familiarity with the basics of Ramsey theory would be beneficial, though not necessary.

Nonstandard Methods In Ramsey Theory And Combinatorial Number Theory

Nonstandard Methods in Ramsey Theory and Combinatorial Number Theory PDF
Author: Mauro Di Nasso
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030179567
Size: 51.73 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 206
View: 5808

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The goal of this monograph is to give an accessible introduction to nonstandard methods and their applications, with an emphasis on combinatorics and Ramsey theory. It includes both new nonstandard proofs of classical results and recent developments initially obtained in the nonstandard setting. This makes it the first combinatorics-focused account of nonstandard methods to be aimed at a general (graduate-level) mathematical audience. This book will provide a natural starting point for researchers interested in approaching the rapidly growing literature on combinatorial results obtained via nonstandard methods. The primary audience consists of graduate students and specialists in logic and combinatorics who wish to pursue research at the interface between these areas.

Elemental Methods In Ergodic Ramsey Theory

Elemental Methods in Ergodic Ramsey Theory PDF
Author: Randall McCutcheon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3540466991
Size: 57.73 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 166
View: 5799

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This book, suitable for graduate students and professional mathematicians alike, didactically introduces methodologies due to Furstenberg and others for attacking problems in chromatic and density Ramsey theory via recurrence in topological dynamics and ergodic theory, respectively. Many standard results are proved, including the classical theorems of van der Waerden, Hindman, and Szemerédi. More importantly, the presentation strives to reflect the extent to which the field has been streamlined since breaking onto the scene around twenty years ago. Potential readers who were previously intrigued by the subject matter but found it daunting may want to give a second look.

Structural Ramsey Theory Of Metric Spaces And Topological Dynamics Of Isometry Groups

Structural Ramsey Theory of Metric Spaces and Topological Dynamics of Isometry Groups PDF
Author: L. Nguyen Van ThŽ
Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.
ISBN: 0821847112
Size: 55.44 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 140
View: 7523

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In 2003, Kechris, Pestov and Todorcevic showed that the structure of certain separable metric spaces--called ultrahomogeneous--is closely related to the combinatorial behavior of the class of their finite metric spaces. The purpose of the present paper is to explore different aspects of this connection.

Canonical Ramsey Theory On Polish Spaces

Canonical Ramsey Theory on Polish Spaces PDF
Author: Vladimir Kanovei
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107434335
Size: 64.83 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 265
View: 262

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This book lays the foundations for an exciting new area of research in descriptive set theory. It develops a robust connection between two active topics: forcing and analytic equivalence relations. This in turn allows the authors to develop a generalization of classical Ramsey theory. Given an analytic equivalence relation on a Polish space, can one find a large subset of the space on which it has a simple form? The book provides many positive and negative general answers to this question. The proofs feature proper forcing and Gandy–Harrington forcing, as well as partition arguments. The results include strong canonization theorems for many classes of equivalence relations and sigma-ideals, as well as ergodicity results in cases where canonization theorems are impossible to achieve. Ideal for graduate students and researchers in set theory, the book provides a useful springboard for further research.

Mathematics Of Ramsey Theory

Mathematics of Ramsey Theory PDF
Author: Jaroslav Nesetril
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783540181910
Size: 78.67 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 269
View: 6087

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One of the important areas of contemporary combinatorics is Ramsey theory. Ramsey theory is basically the study of structure preserved under partitions. The general philosophy is reflected by its interdisciplinary character. The ideas of Ramsey theory are shared by logicians, set theorists and combinatorists, and have been successfully applied in other branches of mathematics. The whole subject is quickly developing and has some new and unexpected applications in areas as remote as functional analysis and theoretical computer science. This book is a homogeneous collection of research and survey articles by leading specialists. It surveys recent activity in this diverse subject and brings the reader up to the boundary of present knowledge. It covers virtually all main approaches to the subject and suggests various problems for individual research.

Ramsey Theory

Ramsey Theory PDF
Author: Xiaodong Xu
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110576635
Size: 45.36 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Mathematics
Languages : en
Pages : 190
View: 2132

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Key problems and conjectures have played an important role in promoting the development of Ramsey theory, a field where great progress has been made during the past two decades, with some old problems solved and many new problems proposed. The present book will be helpful to readers who wish to learn about interesting problems in Ramsey theory, to see how they are interconnected, and then to study them in depth. This book is the first problem book of such scope in Ramsey theory. Many unsolved problems, conjectures and related partial results in Ramsey theory are presented, in areas such as extremal graph theory, additive number theory, discrete geometry, functional analysis, algorithm design, and in other areas. Most presented problems are easy to understand, but they may be difficult to solve. They can be appreciated on many levels and by a wide readership, ranging from undergraduate students majoring in mathematics to research mathematicians. This collection is an essential reference for mathematicians working in combinatorics and number theory, as well as for computer scientists studying algorithms. Contents Some definitions and notations Ramsey theory Bi-color diagonal classical Ramsey numbers Paley graphs and lower bounds for R(k, k) Bi-color off-diagonal classical Ramsey numbers Multicolor classical Ramsey numbers Generalized Ramsey numbers Folkman numbers The Erdős–Hajnal conjecture Other Ramsey-type problems in graph theory On van der Waerden numbers and Szemeredi’s theorem More problems of Ramsey type in additive number theory Sidon–Ramsey numbers Games in Ramsey theory Local Ramsey theory Set-coloring Ramsey theory Other problems and conjectures

Generalised Ramsey Numbers And Bruhat Order On Involutions

Generalised Ramsey numbers and Bruhat order on involutions PDF
Author: Mikael Hansson
Publisher: Linköping University Electronic Press
ISBN: 9176858928
Size: 31.92 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 14
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This thesis consists of two papers within two different areas of combinatorics. Ramsey theory is a classic topic in graph theory, and Paper A deals with two of its most fundamental problems: to compute Ramsey numbers and to characterise critical graphs. More precisely, we study generalised Ramsey numbers for two sets ?1 and ?2 of cycles. We determine, in particular, all generalised Ramsey numbers R(?1, ?2) such that ?1 or ?2 contains a cycle of length at most 6, or the shortest cycle in each set is even. This generalises previous results of Erdös, Faudree, Rosta, Rousseau, and Schelp. Furthermore, we give a conjecture for the general case. We also characterise many (?1, ?2)-critical graphs. As special cases, we obtain complete characterisations of all (Cn,C3)-critical graphs for n ? 5, and all (Cn,C5)-critical graphs for n ? 6. In Paper B, we study the combinatorics of certain partially ordered sets. These posets are unions of conjugacy classes of involutions in the symmetric group Sn, with the order induced by the Bruhat order on Sn. We obtain a complete characterisation of the posets that are graded. In particular, we prove that the set of involutions with exactly one fixed point is graded, which settles a conjecture of Hultman in the affirmative. When the posets are graded, we give their rank functions. We also give a short, new proof of the EL-shellability of the set of fixed-point-free involutions, recently proved by Can, Cherniavsky, and Twelbeck.

Handbook Of Graph Theory

Handbook of Graph Theory PDF
Author: Jonathan L. Gross
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780203490204
Size: 62.29 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 1192
View: 632

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The Handbook of Graph Theory is the most comprehensive single-source guide to graph theory ever published. Best-selling authors Jonathan Gross and Jay Yellen assembled an outstanding team of experts to contribute overviews of more than 50 of the most significant topics in graph theory-including those related to algorithmic and optimization approach