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Republic Of Iraq Public Expenditure Review

Republic of Iraq Public Expenditure Review PDF
Author: The World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464802955
Size: 24.33 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 172
View: 2383

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This Public Expenditure Review (PER) provides an integrated perspective on Iraq’s need to provide better public service delivery, while maintaining macroeconomic stability and fiscal discipline. The achievement of these objectives unfolds within a challenging context of revenue volatility, the need to diversify the economy, weak accountability mechanisms, and residual conflict. Reflecting these challenges, key socio-economic developmental indicators are stalled or even declining despite rapid growth in public spending. Indeed, the review shows that growth in spending has not been matched by absorptive capacity, let alone improved outcomes. The difficult task of constructing the fiscal institutions to embed the practices of good economic management remains a work-in-progress. The PER is one component of World Bank assistance to the government to improve public expenditure policy and management. The challenge for the Iraqi authorities in the years ahead will be to turn oil revenues into sustained welfare improvements. Macroeconomic stability alone is not enough to address social and economic development issues and to avoid a resource curse. Iraq’s oil wealth alone cannot generate sustainably high living standards for the majority of its population. Economic diversification is an imperative—both to create jobs and to promote income-generating opportunities for the Iraqi population. The key challenges for the authorities therefore are (i) to remove constraints to non-hydrocarbon economic activities; (ii) to ensure the efficient use of oil revenue; and (iii) to restrain the growth of current spending (in particular wage bill and subsidies) to free up resources for public investment, while maintaining essential safety nets and social support for the poor and disadvantaged. Public investment management is a crosscutting capability that is needed to meet Iraq’s development objectives. The government has the opportunity to take concrete steps now. The PER proposes approaches and actions to better use Iraq’s oil revenues by shifting to a save and invest via curbing inefficient spending and redirecting resources to public investment and basic services. As economic growth prospects are favorable in the medium-term, the Iraqi government has the opportunity to lay the foundations of a broadly diversified economy, with a reasonable footprint that provides decent public services and security while facilitating adequate economic freedom. Senior policy makers at the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and line ministries are the primary audience of this work.

Republic Of Iraq Public Expenditure Review

Republic of Iraq Public Expenditure Review PDF
Author: The World Bank
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781322076188
Size: 21.73 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Iraq
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 1413

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This Public Expenditure Review (PER) provides an integrated perspective on Iraqs need to provide better public service delivery, while maintaining macroeconomic stability and fiscal discipline. The achievement of these objectives unfolds within a challenging context of revenue volatility, the need to diversify the economy, weak accountability mechanisms, and residual conflict. Reflecting these challenges, key socio-economic developmental indicators are stalled or even declining despite rapid growth in public spending. Indeed, the review shows that growth in spending has not been matched by absorptive capacity, let alone improved outcomes. The difficult task of constructing the fiscal institutions to embed the practices of good economic management remains a work-in-progress. The PER is one component of World Bank assistance to the government to improve public expenditure policy and management. The challenge for the Iraqi authorities in the years ahead will be to turn oil revenues into sustained welfare improvements. Macroeconomic stability alone is not enough to address social and economic development issues and to avoid a resource curse. Iraqs oil wealth alone cannot generate sustainably high living standards for the majority of its population. Economic diversification is an imperativeboth to create jobs and to promote income-generating opportunities for the Iraqi population. The key challenges for the authorities therefore are (i) to remove constraints to non-hydrocarbon economic activities; (ii) to ensure the efficient use of oil revenue; and (iii) to restrain the growth of current spending (in particular wage bill and subsidies) to free up resources for public investment, while maintaining essential safety nets and social support for the poor and disadvantaged. Public investment management is a crosscutting capability that is needed to meet Iraqs development objectives.The government has the opportunity to take concrete steps now. The PER proposes approaches and actions to better use Iraqs oil revenues by shifting to a save and invest via curbing inefficient spending and redirecting resources to public investment and basic services. As economic growth prospects are favorable in the medium-term, the Iraqi government has the opportunity to lay the foundations of a broadly diversified economy, with a reasonable footprint that provides decent public services and security while facilitating adequate economic freedom. Senior policy makers at the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and line ministries are the primary audience of this work.

Republic Of Iraq Public Expenditure Review

Republic of Iraq Public Expenditure Review PDF
Author: The World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464802947
Size: 26.20 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 172
View: 4857

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Republic of Iraq Public Expenditure Review: Toward More Effi cient Spending for Better Service Delivery provides an integrated perspective on how Iraq needs to provide better public service delivery while maintaining macroeconomic stability and fiscal discipline. These goals exist amid a challenging context of revenue volatility, the need to diversify the economy, weak accountability mechanisms, and residual conflict. Reflecting these challenges, key socioeconomic developmental indicators are stalled or are even declining despite rapid growth in public spending. Growth in spending has not been matched by absorptive capacity, let alone improved outcomes. The difficult task of encouraging fiscal institutions to embed practices of good economic management remains a work in progress. The task for Iraqi authorities will be to turn oil revenues into sustained welfare improvements. Macroeconomic stability alone is not enough to address social and economic development issues and to avoid a 'resource curse'. Economic diversifi cation is imperative for the goals of creating jobs and promoting income-generating opportunities for the Iraqi population. In the years ahead, Iraqi government authorities will have the following key challenges: (i) to remove constraints to nonhydrocarbon economic activities; (ii) to ensure the effi cient use of oil revenue, and (iii) to restrain the growth of current spending to free up resources for public investment, while maintaining essential safety nets and social support for the poor and disadvantaged. Senior policymakers at the Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning, and line ministries have the opportunity to take concrete steps now. As economic growth prospects are favorable in the medium term, the Iraqi government needs to lay the foundations of a broadly diversifi ed economy and to provide decent public services and security while facilitating adequate economic freedom.

The Reconstruction Of Iraq After 2003

The Reconstruction of Iraq after 2003 PDF
Author: Hideki Matsunaga
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464813914
Size: 36.95 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 134
View: 1483

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Beginning in 2003, diverse and significant actors, both domestic and international, engaged in reconstruction activities in Iraq. The total budget committed to Iraq’s reconstruction was unprecedented among postconflict operations mobilized by the international community. Despite the vast sums of money spent, and the implementation of its many projects and programs, the donors and the Iraqi people view the reconstruction efforts in Iraq in a negative light. The Reconstruction of Iraq after 2003: Learning from Its Successes and Failures focuses on the period between 2003 and 2014—that is, after the United States†“led invasion and overthrow of the Saddam Hussein regime, and before the sudden rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as Daesh. This book assesses several dimensions of Iraq’s reconstruction. First, it considers the response of key international actors, such as the United Nations, the World Bank, the United States, and other bilateral donors—specifically, the European Union, Japan, and the United Kingdom—as well as nongovernmental organizations. Second, it analyzes the process and results of the reconstruction of key sectors (electricity, oil, education, and health), and the interventions geared to institution building and governance reform. Pursuing effective reconstruction within the context of conflict and fragility is a formidable challenge because of the uncertain, fluid, and complex environment. Based on the experience in Iraq, how can the international community support the effectiveness and durability of reconstruction? This book identifies lessons in seven areas and offers four recommendations for international and domestic actors and citizens engaged in reconstruction activities. The Reconstruction of Iraq after 2003 is important reading for development practitioners and policy makers who are or will be engaged in reconstruction efforts in fragile and conflict-affected environments.

Iraq

Iraq PDF
Author: International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
Publisher: International Monetary Fund
ISBN: 1484314948
Size: 20.56 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 137
View: 6172

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This 2017 Article IV Consultation highlights a double shock facing Iraq as a result of the conflict with the Islamic State and the plunge in oil prices. In 2016, real GDP increased by 11 percent owing to a 25 percent increase in oil production, which was little affected by the conflict with the Islamic State. Falling oil prices have driven the decline in Iraq’s international reserves from $54 billion at the end of 2015 to $45 billion at the end of 2016. Medium-term growth prospects are positive. Growth will be driven by the projected moderate increase in oil production and the rebound in non-oil growth supported by the expected improvement in security and implementation of structural reform.

The Power Of Public Investment Management

The Power of Public Investment Management PDF
Author: Anand Rajaram
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 146480317X
Size: 60.78 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 200
View: 6353

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Public resources, if invested well in public infrastructure and services, can unleash inclusive growth and development. This report provides a simple but comprehensive framework and global experience, to help policy makers adopt good functional principles in the design of institutions to strengthen public investment management.

The Fallout Of War

The Fallout of War PDF
Author: The World Bank
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464816158
Size: 79.71 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 236
View: 708

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The people of the Mashreq have seen more than their share of deaths, economic losses, and instability over the past decade. As the decade-long conflict in the Syrian Arab Republic created new challenges and worsened the existing ones, economic activity declined, labor markets deteriorated, and poverty increased. These trends would overwhelm even the most advanced economies in the world. The Fallout of War: The Regional Consequences of the Conflict in Syria identifies the impact of the Syrian conflict on economic and social outcomes in Iraq, Jordan, and Lebanon. It combines a large number of data sources, statistical approaches, and a suite of economic models to isolate the specific impact of the Syrian conflict from that of global and regional factors, and it explicitly analyzes the mechanisms through which such an impact is manifested. The analysis suggests that a persistent short-termism in policy making has so far propagated the shock emanating from the Syrian conflict, which led to costly and ineffective service provision, lost economic opportunities, and underfunded programs. The report advocates for a fundamental shift from the short-term mitigation policies to a medium-term regional strategy to address pertinent structural problems. Moreover, as the countries in the Mashreq look toward recovery, a policy approach that takes into account the region’s interconnectedness and seeks to build on it provides better prospects for the people. Such a regional approach that addresses cross-boundary issues—including migration, trade, and infrastructure—will require local, regional, and international commitments.

Inclusion And Resilience

Inclusion and Resilience PDF
Author: Joana Silva
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821397729
Size: 30.86 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 320
View: 919

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The report aims to meet two broad objectives: (a) enhance knowledge about the current state of existing social safety nets (SSNs) and assess their effectiveness in responding to new and emerging challenges to the poor and vulnerable in the region by bringing together new evidence, data, and country-specific analysis; and (b) open up and inform a debate on feasible policy options to make SSNs in the Middle East and North Africa more effective and innovative. The first chapter, 'a framework for SSN reform,' describes and illustrates the reasons for the region's growing need for SSN reform and establishes the framework for renewed SSNs. It identifies key goals for SSNs (promoting social inclusion, livelihood, and resilience) and illustrates how these goals have been achieved in some parts of the region and elsewhere. The second chapter, 'key challenges that call for renewed SSNs,' analyzes the challenges facing the region's poor and vulnerable households, which SSNs could focus on as a priority. Two large groups are at higher-than-average poverty risk: children and those who live in rural or lagging areas. The third chapter, 'the current state of SSNs in the Middle East and North Africa,' analyzes SSN spending and assesses different aspects of the SSN systems' performance. The fourth chapter, 'the political economy of SSN reforms in the Middle East and North Africa: what do citizens want?' presents new evidence on citizens' preferences concerning redistribution and SSN design, using newly collected data. It also discusses how political economy considerations could be taken into account in designing renewed SSNs in the region. The fifth chapter, 'the way forward: how to make safety nets in the Middle East and North Africa more effective and innovative,' proposes an agenda for reform and the path for moving forward, using global experience and the evidence presented in the preceding chapters.

Reconstructing Iraq S Budgetary Institutions

Reconstructing Iraq s Budgetary Institutions PDF
Author: James D. Savage
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107039479
Size: 48.48 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 304
View: 1973

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Consistent with the literature on state building, failed states, peacekeeping and foreign assistance, this book argues that budgeting is a core state activity necessary for the operation of a functional government. Employing a historical institutionalist approach, this book first explores the Ottoman, British and Ba'athist origins of Iraq's budgetary institutions. The book next examines American pre-war planning, the Coalition Provisional Authority's rule-making and budgeting following the invasion of Iraq in 2003, and the mixed success of the Coalition's capacity-building programs initiated throughout the occupation. This book sheds light on the problem of 'outsiders' building states, contributes to a more comprehensive evaluation of the Coalition in Iraq, addresses the question of why Iraqis took ownership of some Coalition-generated institutions, and helps explain the nature of institutional change.

Statebuilding In The Middle East And North Africa

Statebuilding in the Middle East and North Africa PDF
Author: Irene Costantini
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351121332
Size: 60.34 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 186
View: 5718

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This book examines the regime changes in Iraq and Libya to unravel the complexity of statebuilding in countries emerging from authoritarianism and conflict in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Framed in a comparative study of post-2003 Iraq and post-2011 Libya, the book examines changes in key state dimensions – representation and political authority, security, and wealth creation and distribution – in a continuous dialogue with past trajectories in these two countries. To grasp the nature and degree of these changes, the mechanisms of state formation are explored in light of a statebuilding agenda that, in its application from Iraq to Libya, has adapted to different political prerogatives. The analysis of Iraq and Libya serves the book’s ultimate goal to address the debate on statebuilding from a regional (MENA) perspective and to lay the ground for the study of other contemporary cases undergoing radical and violent process of changes, such as in Syria and Yemen. The book grapples with problems associated with the difficult process of transition from authoritarianism through conflict and towards peace by focusing on the state, its structure and function. The work is informed by a large quantity of materials collected over the past five years, including secondary literature, policy papers and reports, and semi-structured interviews with key informants on Iraq and Libya. This book will be of much interest to students of statebuilding, Middle Eastern studies, peace and conflict studies, and International Relations in general.

The Middle East

The Middle East PDF
Author: Ellen Lust
Publisher: CQ Press
ISBN: 1544358237
Size: 23.37 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 888
View: 7126

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"Written by a group of well-known experts and researchers who have diligently worked, and updated the book since its first edition to include the most important features of State, Polity, and Governance in Middle East and North Africa... This book is equally useful for instructors and students." —Jalil Roshandel, East Carolina University In the more succinct Fifteenth Edition of The Middle East, editor Ellen Lust brings important new coverage to this comprehensive, balanced, and superbly researched text. In clear prose, Lust and her contributors explain the many complex changes taking place across the region. All country profile chapters now address domestic and regional conflict more explicitly and all tables, figures, boxes, and maps have been fully updated with the most recent data and information. This best-selling text not only helps readers comprehend more fully the world around them, but it also enables readers to recognize and formulate policies that can more successfully engage the Middle East. Give your students the SAGE edge! SAGE edge offers a robust online environment featuring an impressive array of free tools and resources for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the cutting edge of teaching and learning. Learn more at edge.sagepub.com/lust15e

Benchmarking Public Procurement 2016

Benchmarking Public Procurement 2016 PDF
Author: World Bank Group
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 1464807272
Size: 46.96 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 154
View: 2183

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Public procurement accounts for around one-fifth of global gross domestic product (GDP). Given its size the public procurement market can improve public sector performance, promote national competitiveness, drive domestic economic growth, and boost economic development. Launched at the request of the G20 Anti-Corruption Working Group, Benchmarking Public Procurement presents actionable indicators to help countries identify and monitor policies and regulations that impact how private sector companies do business with the government in 77 economies. The Benchmarking Public Procurement 2016 report is organized under two parts: the public procurement life cycle and the complaint and reporting mechanisms indicators. Data was gathered using standardized questionnaires distributed to expert contributors in each economy. The project builds on the Doing Business methodology and aims to promote evidence-based decision making by governments and shed light over areas where few empirical data have been presented so far.

Clivages Politiques Et In Galit S Sociales

Clivages politiques et in  galit  s sociales PDF
Author: Amory Gethin
Publisher: Seuil
ISBN: 202145648X
Size: 31.48 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : fr
Pages : 608
View: 6053

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Depuis les années 1980, les inégalités sont reparties à la hausse dans la plupart des régions du monde, après une période relativement égalitaire dans l’après-guerre. Faut-il y voir la conséquence implacable de la mondialisation et de la technologie, ou bien plutôt un phénomène proprement politique et idéologique ? Pourquoi de nouvelles coalitions électorales unies par d’ambitieux programmes de redistribution des richesses tardent-elles à se développer, et quel est le lien avec la montée de nouveaux conflits identitaires, incarnée par les succès de Trump aux États-Unis, Le Pen en France, Modi en Inde ou encore Bolsonaro au Brésil ? Cet ouvrage collectif offre des pistes de réponses à ces questions en retraçant la transformation des clivages politiques dans 50 pays entre 1948 et 2020. À partir de l’exploitation d’enquêtes électorales couvrant de manière inédite les cinq continents, l’ouvrage étudie le lien entre les comportements de vote et les principales caractéristiques des électeurs telles que le revenu, le diplôme, le genre ou l’identité ethno-religieuse. Cette analyse permet de comprendre comment les mouvements politiques sont amenés à coaliser des intérêts et identités multiples dans les démocraties contemporaines. Une telle perspective historique et mondiale s’avère indispensable pour mieux appréhender l’avenir de la démocratie au XXIe siècle. Toutes les données rassemblées sont mises à la disposition des personnes intéressées dans le cadre de la World Political Cleavages and Inequality Database (www.wpid.world).

                                                                          PDF
Author: استاذ دكتور حامد يحية حسين
Publisher: الدكتور حامد يحيى حسين
ISBN:
Size: 66.57 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Antiques & Collectibles
Languages : ar
Pages : 200
View: 6244

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The Future Of Petroleum In Lebanon

The Future of Petroleum in Lebanon PDF
Author: Sami Atallah
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
ISBN: 1788318501
Size: 71.49 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 376
View: 4739

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What is the future of the oil and gas sector in Lebanon? Following the recent discovery of these valuable resources in the southern Mediterranean, including in the Cypriot and Israeli offshore reserves, the possibility of Lebanon also becoming a petroleum-producing country has been raised. This collection of essays addresses the major challenges and opportunities that accompany the country's hope to join the petroleum club. Covering the key policy issues - from Lebanon's susceptibility to the oil curse, to the environmental risks of production - this book brings together expert analysis to offer answers at the institutional level. Of central importance, the contributors argue, is that for Lebanon to benefit from the discovery of petroleum, it must first reform its institutions with the full support of the voting public and civil society. Combining rigorous quantitative and qualitative research, the Lebanese Center for Policy Studies has produced here an essential book that puts petroleum in Lebanon, and the important questions that come with it, within a global perspective.