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The Labour Market Under New Labour

The Labour Market Under New Labour PDF
Author: R. Dickens
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 0230598455
Size: 27.16 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 314
View: 4096

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Leading experts examine, for the first time, the impact of New Labour policies on the labour market over the past 5 years. Looking behind the 'good news' implied by the lowest headline unemployment rates since the 1970s and by a low and stable rate of inflation, it will examine the impact of policies such as the minimum wage, the New Deal, Working Family Tax Credit scheme, policies on lone parents, and changes in the education system. It also looks at the impact of growing income inequalities over this period, on the growing geographic concentrations of joblessness and on the new phenomenon of widespread total economic inactivity amongst certain social groups.

The Labour Market Under New Labour

The Labour Market Under New Labour PDF
Author: R. Dickens
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN: 9781403916297
Size: 78.25 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 314
View: 7720

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Leading experts examine, for the first time, the impact of New Labour policies on the labour market over the past 5 years. Looking behind the 'good news' implied by the lowest headline unemployment rates since the 1970s and by a low and stable rate of inflation, it will examine the impact of policies such as the minimum wage, the New Deal, Working Family Tax Credit scheme, policies on lone parents, and changes in the education system. It also looks at the impact of growing income inequalities over this period, on the growing geographic concentrations of joblessness and on the new phenomenon of widespread total economic inactivity amongst certain social groups.

Living Insecurity

Living Insecurity PDF
Author: Veronica Sheen
Publisher:
ISBN:
Size: 46.90 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 308
View: 6284

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The research aimed to examine the intersection of three long term social developments - the growth of women's participation in the workforce, the ageing of the workforce in line with population ageing and the decline of secure, permanent employment in favour of precarious jobs. Two research questions emerged: How does feminisation and ageing of the workforce interact with, and shape a precarised labour market? How do the interactions between a feminised, ageing workforce and precarious employment construct new forms of social risks? Thirty-eight midlife women, in the age range 45 to 54, participated in the study, through extended, in-depth interviews and one focus group. The primary research was embedded within an extensive secondary research process involving interrogation of large data sets and a wide range of empirical and theoretical research literature in fields covering social policy, labour studies, social theory, and social welfare. An extensive investigation of relevant contemporary public policy was also undertaken for the study. The key finding of the research is that the growth of precarious employment combined with reduced opportunities for secure employment creates new forms of social inequality and social stratification. As precarious jobs displace secure jobs, the avenues for occupational mobility have become narrower and opportunities for improvement of living standards more limited. Social risks of poverty and other forms of marginalisation, in the present and the future, thus accumulate. Secure jobs are heavily contested and women in midlife are not well-positioned in the contest. Old patterns of gendered occupational segregation have mutated into new forms of precarised occupational structures. (The terms 'precarised' and 'precarisation' are used in the study to denote a process of becoming more insecure and can apply to both people and structures). Midlife women searching for jobs in occupations consistent with their career background find that these are now the most heavily precarised. Past experience and educational qualifications do not necessarily assist in the contest and can instead, impose a barrier where flexibility and malleability are the premium traits sought by employers and perceived to be attributes of younger workers. New requirements for credentials in certain occupations also cut midlife women off from jobs they held in the past. The women who had lost permanent jobs within the last ten years, could find little purchase in the new labour market from their occupational background and skills. A precarious job for women in mid-life is increasingly less likely to be a transitional phase to a better quality, more secure job. As the number of precarious jobs has increased relative to secure jobs, the division of labour is more tightly configured within occupational structures and the boundaries in occupational hierarchies are more rigid. A precarised worker is more likely to be viewed as an expendable and substitutable appendage in a work situation and less likely to be considered a worker who may have an interest in occupational progression with improved income and security. The fact of this dynamic is suggested by the significant number of women in the study who had been in the same precarious job within an organisation over a considerable period of time without opportunity for upward movement or a more secure position. While these jobs are unsatisfactory, perceptions that there are limited employment opportunities, often based on earlier job search efforts, mean that women stay in these jobs. If they have prioritised caring at an earlier stage of life, women find themselves in a very disadvantageous position at the point, often well into their forties or fifties, when they need to find a job to support themselves and their families. The situation is especially dire following a divorce after the age of 45 where there has been little preparation to be self-supporting through workforce participation. If they have had limited prior work experience and limited education or have only ever worked in precarious jobs, they are likely to face unemployment or relegation to particularly onerous occupations with little prospect of occupational mobility or improvement in their socio-economic status. Caring for elderly parents can also impact on women's working lives in midlife especially if they are already in precarious jobs. Elder care can solidify an already disadvantaged labour market position. The system of social protection plays a double-edged part in the lives of many women in the study. It provides very basic income support for sole parents and the unemployed. However, it is a heavily conditional system and acts as a conduit for disadvantaged women into precarious jobs which they are required to accept under the terms and conditions of social security law. Rigorous job search requirements are attached to income support for the unemployed. As unemployment payments are below the poverty line, there is a necessity to take on whatever work is available. There is little encouragement or provision within social welfare for improvement in the long term occupational prospects of disadvantaged women trapped in precarious, low wage jobs. Support for education and training has a pragmatic and instrumental focus to place participants in work as quickly as possible. In addition, there is no accommodation or recognition within the social welfare system of women's past contributions such as raising a family. The age pension eligibility age will increase to 67 by 2023, which places a significant burden on disadvantaged women, such as those covered in this study, to continue in difficult employment which they may not be able to sustain to such an advanced age. There are many examples in the study of abhorrent and dehumanising work conditions in precarious jobs as a result of labour commodification. Women report arduous performance requirements, surveillance and monitoring, competition with other workers, and little control over work schedules and hence income. A few report covert and overt intimidation, and unsafe conditions. There is little in the way of collective support mechanisms for most women in the study. Even where the job is less onerous, such as in a community organisation, hospital or university, there is a strong sense of commodification and lack of security. Labour commodification leads to the 'precarisation of existence' depending on protective factors in women's lives. At the worst end, there is a high level of social risk. It is encumbered in a distressing conflation between a precarious job and otherwise difficult life circumstances where mental and physical wellbeing is compromised through low income, anxiety and stress. The social welfare system abets labour commodification by driving disadvantaged women into the most precarious jobs. But even where there are other protective factors in women's lives, such as a partner or secure housing, precarious jobs are in various ways arduous, demoralising and stressful as well as antagonistic to family obligations. The study identified social and economic injustice evidenced in the discriminatory employment practices, in the entrapment in dehumanising jobs, in the dualistic role of social security, and in the accumulating disadvantages in women's lives. The outcome is an odious form of social stratification based on the vulnerabilities of midlife women which were engendered within the context of labour market and social expectations of an earlier era. These vulnerabilities, constituted of personal characteristics and workforce background, form considerable barriers to employment and social equality under the terms and conditions of the new labour market. This study contributes another layer of understanding of women's contemporary experience in the labour market by focusing on midlife women. It was clear that for a number of women, social and class status had changed over time as a result of parenting and job loss with factors such as the erosion of the value of education and age discrimination also coming into play. It is perhaps not too far-fetched to suggest that the gains of the 1970s and 1980s in opening opportunities for women have in more recent years reverted to old patterns of gendered labour market divisions as a result of the forces of precarisation. This is noted by the widening of the gender wage gap and the decline of women's full time employment. However, where women have been able to maintain or improve their occupational status they have done well. These gains are noted by some scholars in improvements in the extent of vertical occupational segregation. Thus, it can be seen that there are forces supporting both continuity and change in women's labour market status in the 21st century.

Making Work More Equal

Making work more equal PDF
Author: Damian Grimshaw
Publisher: Manchester University Press
ISBN: 152611707X
Size: 27.58 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 360
View: 3773

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This electronic version has been made available under a Creative Commons (BY-NC-ND) open access license. This book presents new theories and international empirical evidence on the state of work and employment around the world. Changes in production systems, economic conditions and regulatory conditions are posing new questions about the growing use by employers of precarious forms of work, the contradictory approaches of governments towards employment and social policy, and the ability of trade unions to improve the distribution of decent employment conditions. The book proposes a ‘new labour market segmentation approach’ for the investigation of issues of job quality, employment inequalities, and precarious work. This approach is distinctive in seeking to place the changing international patterns and experiences of labour market inequalities in the wider context of shifting gender relations, regulatory regimes and production structures.

Evaluation Of German Active Labour Market Policies And Their Organisational Framework

Evaluation of German Active Labour Market Policies and their Organisational Framework PDF
Author: Christoph R. Ehlert
Publisher: Springer Gabler
ISBN: 3658081120
Size: 10.69 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 125
View: 7383

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For selected target groups, such as unemployed and disadvantaged youth, Christoph Ehlert demonstrates that flexible and well-targeted programmes significantly improve employment chances. To be effective, these programmes must combine individual coaching, classroom training and temporary work. Apart from the programmes, the organisational framework in which the programmes are allocated also influences the outcome. The author shows that the introduction of customer service centres, that streamlined the customers through the counselling and placement process, helped little in bringing unemployed back to work, while the introduction of action programmes even worsened the situation for the unemployed and job-seekers. Whereas the introduction of new placement software in German employment agencies led to an increase in regular employment and to more sustainable placements that exhibit longer tenures.

Trade Unions In A Neoliberal World

Trade Unions in a Neoliberal World PDF
Author: Gary Daniels
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134091745
Size: 53.53 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 400
View: 4259

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Trade Unions in a Neoliberal World is the first book to provide readers with an authoritative and comprehensive assessment of the impact of New Labour governments on employment relations and trade unions. This innovative text locates changes in industrial politics since the 1990s in the development of globalization and the worldwide emergence of neoliberalism. The advent of Tony Blair’s government in 1997 promised a new dawn for employment relations. In this rigorous but readable volume, a team of experienced and respected contributors explain in detail how the story has unfolded. This book looks at all aspects of New Labour’s policies in relation to employment relations and trade unionism. The first half of Trade Unions in a Neoliberal World presents an overview of industrial politics, the evolution of New Labour and an anatomy of contemporary trade unionism. It discusses relations between the Labour Party and the unions and the response of trade unionists to political and economic change. The second part contains chapters on legislation, partnership, organizing, training, strikes and perspectives on Europe.

New Labour

New Labour PDF
Author: Stephen Driver
Publisher: Polity
ISBN: 0745633307
Size: 20.80 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 240
View: 6212

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In May 2005 the Labour Party led by Tony Blair won an unprecedented third term in power. After eight years in government its achievements were many. But there was controversy too, not least the decision to support the United States in the invasion of Iraq. The Blair government promised to be different both at home and abroad. New Labour would move social democratic politics on in the face of a rapidly changing world. It would also take British politics and policy-making beyond Thatcherism. But how successful has it been? In this second edition of the widely praised New Labour: Politics after Thatcherism, Stephen Driver and Luke Martell explore the origins of New Labour and examine in detail the Labour government's record in power. They argue that this record bears the imprint of the reforms to the British state and society made under successive Conservative administrations. At the same time, New Labour has taken British politics and public policy in directions that reflect the party's progressive, liberal and social democratic past. New Labour is post-Thatcherite. The completely revised second edition of New Labour contains: - An accessible and comprehensive account of New Labour politics - Up-to-date policy chapters on economic, social and constitutional affairs - A new chapter on European and foreign policies - An original and critical interpretation of New Labour and the future of social democratic politics in Britain, Europe and other parts of the world The second edition of New Labour will be an invaluable resource for students of politics, sociology and other social sciences, those involved in public policy and public affairs and anyone looking for an accessible guide to New Labour and the Blair government.

The Evaluation Of Active Labour Market Policies

The Evaluation of Active Labour Market Policies PDF
Author: Jaap Koning
Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing
ISBN: 9781781953013
Size: 52.51 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Political Science
Languages : en
Pages : 404
View: 1831

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This book argues that active labour market policies are necessary to improve the position of the unemployed but have so far performed relatively poorly. The contributing authors seek ways to improve active labour market policy and consider three means of doing so: improving the quality by better targeting and by better-designed measures, more efficient implementation and delivery, and better performance by benchmarking the various implementation agencies involved.

Labour Law And Social Protection In A Globalized World

Labour Law and Social Protection in a Globalized World PDF
Author: Jan Pichrt
Publisher: Kluwer Law International B.V.
ISBN: 9403500948
Size: 49.42 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 368
View: 7137

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The protection of jobs and labour law standards achieved by employees in the past has been under pressure from neoliberalization forces for many years. The focused perspectives evident in this original collection of essays go a long way toward clearly de? ning where labour law and social security law must set their sights in order to preserve fair and productive employer-employee relations in the new world of work. Distinguished researchers study the changing realities confronting the labour market, in public policy as well as in industrial relations. Issues and topics include the following: – integration of immigrants into industrial relations; – the social situation of migrant workers; – new phenomena brought by the digital age; – temporary agency work; – harmonizing family and working lives; – sport and labour law; – the role of European Works Councils; and – social and labour reforms. Throughout this book, the contributors emphasize the changing role of the state and reform agendas. Although the central focus is on Europe, there is an abundance of comparative detail, allowing for global application. As a matchless, up-to-date overview and analysis of how new and emerging forms of employment and industrial relations impact employee security, this book will be warmly welcomed by practitioners, academics, and policymakers concerned with ensuring the persistence of fair and viable standards in labour and social security law.

Social Power And The Labour Market

Social Power and the Labour Market PDF
Author: David Purdy
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan
ISBN:
Size: 14.10 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 280
View: 6426

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A discussion of the power relationships between employers, workers and their organizations in capitalist societies. It looks at the patterns of dominance and subordination determined by capitalist structure, gender division and occupational hierarchy, and outlines the egalitarian strategy.