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The Liberal Project And The Transformation Of Democracy

The Liberal Project and the Transformation of Democracy PDF
Author: Sabrina P. Ramet
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781585445790
Size: 52.15 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : History
Languages : en
Pages : 192
View: 757

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Students of democratic theory have watched the dramatic transformation of Eastern Europe from communism to various forms of democracy in the last two decades. With her unique blend of theory and empirical analysis, veteran observer Sabrina P. Ramet offers clear insight into the processes, challenges, and accomplishments of this area. Drawing on a classical understanding of “liberalism” based on a philosophy of Natural Law, she probes the issues of capitalism, national sovereignty and self-determination, gender inequality, and political legitimacy in the context of Eastern Europe’s particular experience. She also explores the limitations of classical liberalism and argues for the extension of liberal principles to encompass the rights of women and protection of all species as well as the environment. Political theorists, political scientists, students of Eastern Europe, and those interested in the larger questions of political philosophy will be richly rewarded in their reading of this volume by a renowned scholar of Eastern European politics.

Authoritarian Liberalism And The Transformation Of Modern Europe

Authoritarian Liberalism and the Transformation of Modern Europe PDF
Author: Michael A. Wilkinson
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192597086
Size: 36.58 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 336
View: 4731

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This title recounts the transformation of Europe from the post-war era until the Euro-crisis, using the tools of constitutional analysis and critical theory. The central claim is twofold: Europe has been gradually reconstituted in a manner that combines political authoritarianism with economic liberalism and that this order is now in a critical condition. Authoritarian liberalism is constructed supranationally, through a taming of inter-state relations in the project of European integration; at the domestic level, through the depoliticization of state-society relations; and socially, through the emergence of a new constitutional imaginary based on liberal individualism. In the language of constitutional theory, this transformation can be captured by the substitution of supranationalism for internationalism, technocracy for democracy, and economic for political freedom. Sovereignty is restrained, democracy curtailed, and class struggle repressed. This constitutional trajectory takes time to unfold and develop and it presents continuities and discontinuities. On the one hand, authoritarian liberalism is deepened by the neoliberalism of the Maastricht era and the creation of Economic and Monetary Union. On the other hand, counter-movements then also begin to emerge, geopolitically, in the return of the German question, domestically, in the challenges to the EU presented by constitutional courts, and informally, in the rise of anti-systemic political parties and movements. Sovereignty, democracy, and political freedom resurface, but are then more actively suppressed through the harsher authoritarian liberalism of the Euro-crisis phase. This leads now to an impasse. Anti-systemic politics return but remain uneasily within the EU, suggesting authoritarian liberalism has reached its limits if just about managing to maintain constitutional order. As yet, there has been no definitive rupture, with the possible exception of Brexit.

Dimensions And Challenges Of Russian Liberalism

Dimensions and Challenges of Russian Liberalism PDF
Author: Riccardo Mario Cucciolla
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3030057844
Size: 65.52 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 251
View: 5070

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Liberalism in Russia is one of the most complex, multifaced and, indeed, controversial phenomena in the history of political thought. Values and practices traditionally associated with Western liberalism—such as individual freedom, property rights, or the rule of law—have often emerged ambiguously in the Russian historical experience through different dimensions and combinations. Economic and political liberalism have often appeared disjointed, and liberal projects have been shaped by local circumstances, evolved in response to secular challenges and developed within often rapidly-changing institutional and international settings. This third volume of the Reset DOC “Russia Workshop” collects a selection of the Dimensions and Challenges of Russian Liberalism conference proceedings, providing a broad set of insights into the Russian liberal experience through a dialogue between past and present, and intellectual and empirical contextualization, involving historians, jurists, political scientists and theorists. The first part focuses on the Imperial period, analyzing the political philosophy and peculiarities of pre-revolutionary Russian liberalism, its relations with the rule of law (Pravovoe Gosudarstvo), and its institutionalization within the Constitutional Democratic Party (Kadets). The second part focuses on Soviet times, when liberal undercurrents emerged under the surface of the official Marxist-Leninist ideology. After Stalin’s death, the “thaw intelligentsia” of Soviet dissidents and human rights defenders represented a new liberal dimension in late Soviet history, while the reforms of Gorbachev’s “New Thinking” became a substitute for liberalism in the final decade of the USSR. The third part focuses on the “time of troubles” under the Yeltsin presidency, and assesses the impact of liberal values and ethics, the bureaucratic difficulties in adapting to change, and the paradoxes of liberal reforms during the transition to post-Soviet Russia. Despite Russian liberals having begun to draw lessons from previous failures, their project was severely challenged by the rise of Vladimir Putin. Hence, the fourth part focuses on the 2000s, when the liberal alternative in Russian politics confronted the ascendance of Putin, surviving in parts of Russian culture and in the mindset of technocrats and “system liberals”. Today, however, the Russian liberal project faces the limits of reform cycles of public administration, suffers from a lack of federalist attitude in politics and is externally challenged from an illiberal world order. All this asks us to consider: what is the likelihood of a “reboot” of Russian liberalism?

The Condition Of Democracy

The Condition of Democracy PDF
Author: Jürgen Mackert
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 100040191X
Size: 12.46 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 198
View: 1960

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Recent years have seen contestations of democracy all around the globe. Democracy is challenged as a political as well as a normative term, and as a form of governance. Against the background of neoliberal transformation, populist mobilization, and xenophobic exclusion, but also of radical and emancipatory democratic projects, this collection offers a variety of critical and challenging perspectives on the condition of democracy in the 21st century. The volumes provide theoretical and empirical enquiries into the meaning and practice of liberal democracy, the erosion of democratic institutions, and the consequences for citizenship and everyday lives. With a pronounced focus on national and transnational politics and processes, as well as postcolonial and settler colonial contexts, individual contributions scrutinize the role of democratic societies, ideals, and ideologies of liberal democracy within global power geometries. By employing the multiple meanings of The Condition of Democracy, the collection addresses the preconditions of democratic rule, the state this form of governance is in, and the changing ways in which citizens can (still) act as the sovereign in liberal democratic societies. The books offer both challenging theoretical perspectives and rigorous empirical findings of how to conceive of democracy in our times, which will appeal to academics and students in social and political science, economics, and international relations amongst other fields. The focus on developments in the Middle East and North Africa will furthermore be of great usefulness to academics and the wider public interested in the repercussions of western democracy promotion as well as in contemporary struggles for democratization ‘from below’. During the last 50 years, liberal democracies have been exposed to a fundamental reorganization of their politico-economic structure that transformed them through the impact of neo-liberal economic doctrines focused on low taxation, free markets, and out-sourcing that have little regard in reality for democratic institutions or liberal values. The failures of the neoliberal ‘remedy’ for capitalism are now dramatically obvious through the banking crisis of 2008-2011, the increase in income inequality, the social and psychological damage caused by the austerity packages across Europe, and widespread dependence on experts whose influence over government policies typically goes without public scrutiny. While this has only accelerated the destruction of the social fabric in modern Western societies, the dramatic redistribution of wealth and an open 'politics for the rich' have also revealed the long-time well-covered alliance of the global oligarchy with the Far Right that has the effect of undermining democracy. The contributions to this volume discuss a wide variety of processes of transformation, the social consequences, dedemocratization and illiberalization of once liberal democracies through the destructive impact of neoliberal strategies. These strongly politico-economic contributions are complemented with general sociological analyses of a number of cultural aspects often neglected in analyses of democracy.

Das Ende Der Geschichte

Das Ende der Geschichte PDF
Author: Francis Fukuyama
ISBN: 9783463401324
Size: 29.94 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : History
Languages : de
Pages : 510
View: 1869

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Governing Societies Political Perspectives On Domestic And International Rule

Governing Societies  Political Perspectives On Domestic And International Rule PDF
Author: Dean, Mitchell
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)
ISBN: 0335208975
Size: 29.71 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Social Science
Languages : en
Pages : 228
View: 7429

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What structures of power are involved in governing societies and how are they connected? How is the liberal idea of governing through freedom linked to the increasing control of marginalised populations? Have we reached the end of history in which governing largely concerns self-governing individuals, networks and communities? Should we dispense with the 'container view of society' and contemplate the 'death of the social'? Today, many people in academia, politics and business, question the idea of being able to govern society. The nation state and sovereign government are displaced by globalization and individualization. Mitchell Dean focuses on ‘governing societies’ as a distinctive project that continues to define political life today. The book offers a critical analysis of contemporary liberal approaches to governing societies both in domestic and international affairs. Governing Societies provides an overview of current perspectives and theories and examines recent transformations in techniques and rationalities of rule. It presents a new argument for the importance and transformation of sovereignty and powers of life and death and how they are integral to governing liberal-democratic societies. The book is key reading for undergraduate and postgraduate students of sociology and politics, as well as researchers and academics.

Mill On Democracy

Mill on Democracy PDF
Author: Nadia Urbinati
Publisher: University of Chicago Press
ISBN: 9780226842776
Size: 48.67 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 293
View: 6037

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Despite John Stuart Mill's widely respected contributions to philosophy and political economy, his work on political philosophy has received a much more mixed response. Some critics have even charged that Mill's liberalism was part of a political project to restrain, rather than foster, democracy. Redirecting attention to Mill as a political thinker, Nadia Urbinati argues that this claim misrepresents Mill's thinking. Although he did not elaborate a theory of democracy, Mill did devise new avenues of democratic participation in government that could absorb the transformation of politics engendered by the institution of representation. More generally, Urbinati assesses Mill's contribution to modern democratic theory by critiquing the dominant "two liberties" narrative that has shaped Mill scholarship over the last several decades. As Urbinati shows, neither Isaiah Berlin's theory of negative and positive freedom nor Quentin Skinner's theory of liberty as freedom from domination adequately captures Mill's notion of political theory. Drawing on Mill's often overlooked writings on ancient Greece, Urbinati shows that Mill saw the ideal representative government as a "polis of the moderns," a metamorphosis of the unique features of the Athenian polis: the deliberative character of its institutions and politics; the Socratic ethos; and the cooperative implications of political agonism and dissent. The ancient Greeks, Urbinati shows, and Athenians in particular, are the key to understanding Mill's contribution to modern democratic theory and the theory of political liberty. Urbinati concludes by demonstrating the importance of Mill's deliberative model of politics to the contemporary debate on liberal and republican views of liberty. Her fresh and persuasive approach not only clarifies Mill's political ideas but also illustrates how they can help enrich our contemporary understanding of democracy.

The Great Transformation

The great transformation PDF
Author: Karl Polanyi
Size: 16.56 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Economic history
Languages : de
Pages : 378
View: 6443

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The Rise Of A Chinese Bourgeoisie And The Potential For Democratic Transition

The Rise of a Chinese Bourgeoisie and the Potential for Democratic Transition PDF
Author: Michael John Drake
Size: 58.13 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
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This project examines the logic of China's political history and the potential for its democratic political transformation in the 21st century. Using the ideas of Moore and Skocpol the project employs a comparative historical sociology to explain the emergence of the liberal democratic political order in the 18th century western transformations as organized by an emerging bourgeoisie. The end goal of the project is to determine if the creation of a Chinese entrepreneurial class, which does exist in economic terms as a result of market activity and the devolution of state power, can be taken as evidence of an imminent shift into social structure associated with a bourgeoisie that embodies economic, cultural and political power. The analysis of the western transformations identifies the evolution of a bourgeois culture from the 16th up until the 18th century. The 16th century saw the rise of the rationalization and secularization of the entrepreneur - reason became the standard that would guide society, not the dogmas of traditional authority. The 17th century built on this by emphasizing the importance of property and law - as ways of realizing the newfound philosophical development that emerged in the previous century. Finally, the 18th century witnessed a profound emphasis on the constitutional rule of law and democratic process. These three sets of liberal values - the rise of reason over the dogmas of the state or church; emphasis on property and law; and emphasis on democratic principles and constitutional governance - are the defining features of emergent bourgeois government. The analysis of the failed eastern transformations reveals how economy and state gravely checked the rise of a bourgeoisie and its transformation of the traditional state. The comprehensive state machinery - such as existed in China and Russia - imposed autocratic constraints on the force of the market and its social attachments and political products. Until social forces could create a space for market organization and property-law within the economic system, the state maintained its autocratic monopoly. In the last 20 years the logic of Moore has been resumed in China, as markets and property have emerged with force and the state system has resiled from its traditionally autocratic role, albeit with property-capturing and law-distorting corruptions. As Moore's logic once more exerts itself we should see change in China from market organization to property-law to a specific culture as the foundations of bourgeois political transformation.